pforams@mikrotax - Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana pforams@mikrotax - Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana

Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Pseudoglobigerinella -> Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana
Sister taxa: P. bolivariana, P. sp.


Citation: Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana (Petters 1954)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina wilsoni bolivariana
Taxonomic discussion: Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana has long been considered an enigmatic species due to its equatorial aperture. Blow (1979) was uncertain of its generic designation when he placed the species in ‘Hastigerina?’, emphasizing its homeomorphy with the Recent species ‘Hastigerina siphonifera’ (= Globigerinella siphonifera) which he regarded as derived from the trochospiral species Globorotalia (Turborotalia) obesa (Blow, 1979, p.1178). He regarded his new species, Globorotalia (Turborotalia) griffinae Blow 1979, as having an analogous ancestral relationship with P. bolivariana as G. obesa did with H. siphonifera (i.e., the derivation of planispiral coiling from a low trochospirally coiled morphotype). Toumarkine and Luterbacher (1985) followed Blow in placing bolivariana in ‘Hastigerina’.
Blow selected the holotype and some paratypes for his new species G. (T.) griffinae from the same sample
(KANE 9 Core 42, 200 cm) from which he also illustrated bolivariana. His case for regarding griffinae as ancestral to bolivariana is clear from the SEM illustrations of the two species (his pl. 150, figs. 1-9) as they both share a Clavigerinella-type reticulate wall texture (but see comments under Paragloborotalia griffinoides regarding other paratypes of griffinae). Blow also emphasized the general range of morphologic variation in his illustrations of bolivariana (Blow, 1979, p. 1178) in morphotypes that are more loosely coiled with 5 chambers in the ultimate whorl, to the tightly coiled morphotype with a large inflated ultimate chamber. Toumarkine and Luterbacher (1985) illustrated large inflated morphotypes (their fig. 27.25-28) similar to the holotype but also illustrated a form (their fig. 27.29) similar to the loosely coiled forms illustrated by Blow (his pl. 150, figs. 3, 4). Plate 5.14 (this chapter) shows some of the range of morphologic variation observed in this species. Of interest is the considerable variation in the size of the aperture, from a low arch to a highly elevated arch.
The derivation of the lineage leading to Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana is uncertain, as the species has not been intensively studied in stratigraphic sections. Weiss (1955) noted the tendency in some morphotypes of P. bolivariana “towards Globigerinella-like uncoiling” (1955, p. 309) as did Toumarkine and Luterbacher (their fig. 27.29). Blow was struck by the close homeomorphy with the Recent species Hastigerina siphonifera ( =Globigerinella siphonifera) and believed that “both the Neogene and Palaeogene forms have the same basic globigerinacean wall structure” (Blow, 1979, p. 1176). However, subsequent studies show that siphonifera has a bulloides-type wall texture (Hemleben, and others, 1991) whereas P. bolivariana has a reticulate, Clavigerinella-type wall texture (this volume), much different from that of siphonifera. Thus, the two species exhibit only a gross homeomorphic similarity. Although Blow placed bolivariana questionably in Hastigerina, he believed that bolivariana should be placed in a new genus if it was demonstrated that the two species could be morphologically separated.
Hillebrandt (1976) considered Globigerina inaequispira Subbotina ( =Parasubbotina inaequispira) as the ancestor of his new species Pseudohastigerina sphaeroidalis (here considered a junior synonym of P. bolivariana). Blow (1979, p. 749) also entertained a similar idea, in that he believed “that Globorotalia (Turborotalia) griffinae represents the derivation of an essentially turborotaliid type of coiling pattern...from the morphotypes included in Subbotina inaequispira”, from which he derived P. bolivariana. As discussed above, there are two sets of morphotypes that Blow included in his species griffinae. The first set (illustrated on his pl. 150) appears related to bolivariana in that it possesses a high porosity reticulate Clavigerinella-type wall texture like bolivariana. This type of wall texture also occurs in Parasubbotina eoclava Coxall, Huber, and Pearson, which is regarded as the ancestral species of the Clavigerinella lineage (Coxall and others, 2003) and also in P. inaequispira, particularly in the late early Eocene (see discussion under P. inaequispira). Thus, it appears that P. inaequispira gave rise to two planispiral genera in the late early Eocene, Pseudoglobigerinella and Clavigerinella.
Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana is a rare species except in areas of high productivity, where it can dominate the planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. The species was first described by Petters (1954) from the same sample as Clavigerinella colombiana (Petters), which is also considered by us as an indicator of high productivity. In Ecuador, Stainforth (1948) reported that bolivariana was frequently associated with radiolarian-rich shales, and Weiss (1955) recorded it in depauperate assemblages from Peru that were probably affected by upwelling. The griffinae -bolivariana -colombiana biofacies may prove of some use in delineating ancient areas of upwelling. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina wilsoni bolivariana, Globigerinella alexi, Pseudohastigerina globulosa, Pseudohastigerina sphaeroidalis, Globigerina bolivariana pannonica

Type images:

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Pseudoglobigerinella): Inflated, nearly involute, globular test, asymmetrical equatorial aperture; wall reticulate, Clavigerinella-type wall texture. May show uncoiling.
This taxon: Test compact, nearly involute, globular; aperture asymmetrical equatorial; Clavigerinella-type reticulate wall texture and thickened crust.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Globular, nearly involute, asymmetrically planispiral in adult stage (juvenile stage very low trochospiral), slightly lobulate in outline, chambers globular; 4-5 globular, embracing chambers in final whorl, increasing rapidly in size, ultimate chamber much inflated, sutures moderately depressed, straight, umbilicus small and often covered by ultimate chamber; in edge view chambers globular in shape, slightly embracing, aperture asymmetrically equatorial, varying from a low arch to a high distinctive arch, bordered by an imperforate rim and sometimes by a narrow lip that broadens on both sides towards the center of the coil. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Wall type:
Normal perforate, spinose, high porosity, reticulate, Clavigerinella-type wall structure, covered by a thick crust in adult stage. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Maximum diameter of type species 0.52 mm, thickness 0.40 mm. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Character matrix
test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Pseudoplanispiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Equatorial
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Very lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4-5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Identified only in middle Eocene low latitude upwelling areas. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Low latitudes and high productivity/upwelling; based on Olsson et al. (2006c)

Isotope paleobiology
No data available. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 6 - Upwelling/high productivity. Based on occurrence predominantly in sites of high productivity or upwelling. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Pearson et al. (2006)

Phylogenetic relations
Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana was derived from Parasubbotina griffinae by a more rapid increase in chamber size, the development of a nearly involute planispiral test, and an asymmetrical equatorial aperture. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Parasubbotina griffinae - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 f5.1.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Assemblages with abundant P. bolivariana are usually difficult to correlate with the standard (sub)tropical biozonation because the more oligotrophic zone fossils are usually absent. Pseudoglobigerinella appears restricted to the uppermost part of the lower Eocene and the lower half of the middle Eocene (approximately correlative with Zones E7 to E10; Blow, 1979). [Olsson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within E10 zone (41.89-43.23Ma, top in Lutetian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas
First occurrence (base): within E7 zone (45.72-50.2Ma, base in Ypresian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 5, p. 106


Cole, W. S. (1927). A foraminiferal fauna from the Guayabal formation in Mexico. Bulletins of American Paleontology. 14(51): 1-36. gs

Coxall, H. K., Huber, B. T. & Pearson, P. N. (2003). Origin and morphology of the Eocene planktonic foraminifera Hantkenina. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 33: 237-261. gs

Gohrbandt, K. H. A. (1967). Some new planktonic foraminiferal species from the Austrian Eocene. Micropaleontology. 13(3): 319-326. gs

Haque, A. F. M. M. (1956). The smaller foraminifera of the Ranikot and the Laki of the Nammal gorge, Salt Range. Memoir of the Pakistan Geological Survey. 1: 1-300. gs

Hemleben, C., Mohlen, D., Olsson, R. K. & Berggren, W. A. (1991). Surface texture and the first occurrence of spines in planktonic foraminfera from the early Tertiary. Geologisch Jarhbuch. 128: 117-146. gs

Hillebrandt, A. , von (1976). Los foraminiferos planctonicos, nummulitidos y coccolitoforidos de la zona de Globorotalia palmerae del Cuisiense (Eoceno inferior) en el SE de Espana, (Provincias de Murcia y Alicante. Revista Española de Micropaleontología. 8(3): 323-394. gs O

Hillebrandt, A. , von (1978). Pseudohastigerina sphaeroidalis nom. nov. for Pseudohastigerina globulosa v. Hillebrandt, 1976 non Pseudohastigerina wilcoxensis globulosa (Gohrbrandt, 1967). Revista Española de Micropaleontología. 10(2): 337-. gs

Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N. & Huber, B. T. (2006c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication . 41(Chap 5): 67-110. gs O

Petters, V. (1954). Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous foraminifera from Colombia, S. A. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research. 5(1): 37-41. gs

Samuel, O. (1972a). New species of planktonic foraminifers from the Paleogene of the West Carpathians in Slovakia (Czechoslovakia). Zborník geologických vied, séria Západné Karpaty. 17: 217-221. gs

Stainforth, R. M. (1948a). Applied micropalaeotology in coastal Ecuador. Journal of Paleontology. 22: 113-151. gs

Toumarkine, M. & Luterbacher, H. (1985). Paleocene and Eocene planktic foraminifera. In, Bolli, H. M., Saunders, J. B. & Perch-Neilsen, K. (eds) Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 87-154. gs

Weiss, L. (1955b). Planktonic index foraminifera of northwestern Peru. Micropaleontology. 1: 301-319. gs


Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 30-11-2023

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