pforams@mikrotax - Subbotina gortanii pforams@mikrotax - Subbotina gortanii

Subbotina gortanii

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Subbotina -> Subbotina gortanii
Sister taxa: S. projecta, S. tecta, S. jacksonensis, S. corpulenta, S. eocaena, S. gortanii, S. crociapertura, S. yeguaensis, S. senni, S. roesnaesensis ⟩⟨ S. utilisindex, S. angiporoides, S. minima, S. linaperta, S. patagonica ⟩⟨ S. cancellata, S. hornibrooki, S. velascoensis, S. triloculinoides, S. triangularis, S. trivialis, S. sp.


Citation: Subbotina gortanii (Borsetti 1959)
taxonomic rank: Species
Basionym: Catapsydrax gortanii
Taxonomic discussion:

Borsetti (1959) described Catapsydrax venzoi from the same locality and level as gortanii, and we illustrate here new SEMs of the holotype. The specimen has a higher spire than typical Catapsydrax and in our view is synonymous with Subbotina gortanii. [Wade et al. 2018]

Globigerina winkleri Bermúdez is commonly referred to in the literature from the 1960s and 70s. Stainforth (1974) considered this form to be related to Subbotina corpulenta group. Blow (1979) placed the taxon within his new genus Dentoglobigerina and considered it to be a stratigraphically useful form that evolved from D. galavisi. We have obtained new SEM images of the holotype and find this to be a large form, with a wrap-around bulla and we consider this species to be a junior synonym of Subbotina gortanii. See Olsson and others (2006) for a full discussion S. gortanii. [Wade et al. 2018]

Blow (1979) regarded Globigerina gortanii gortanii as the senior synonym of Globigerina turritilina turritilina Blow and Banner, but retained the separation of this form from Globigerina turritilina praeturritilina Blow and Banner. Blow and Banner (1962) separated Globigerina turritilina turritilina from Globigerina turritilina praeturritilina on the basis of slightly less inflated chambers, a broader umbilicus, and a higher aperture in G. turritilina praeturritilina. The holotypes of Blow and Banner’s subspecies are illustrated for the first time in SEM on Plate 6.10, Figs. 9-12 and show little difference between the two morphotypes in these characters. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Khalilov’s Globigerina pseudocorpulenta is a high-spired form that Blow (1979) considered a possible senior synonym of praeturritilina. The holotype was viewed by WAB who was unable to place the specimen unequivocally, hence we hold it in questionable synonymy with gortanii but recommend suppression of the name. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Catapsydrax gortanii, Globigerina pseudocorpulenta, Globigerina turritilina praeturritilina, Globigerina turritilina turritilina, Catapsydrax venzoi, Globigerina winkleri

Type images:

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Subbotina): Low trochospiral, tripartite test, with 3-4 rapidly inflating, globular chambers in final whorl. Umbilicus nearly closed by tight coiling. Wall cancellate with spines at nodes of the ridges, +/- spine collars.
This taxon: Test trochospiral, loosely coiled, with globular chambers, and umbilical aperture.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


High trochospiral, globular in outline, chambers globular; in spiral view 4 globular, loosely embracing chambers arranged in 3 whorls, increasing moderately in size, sutures deeply depressed, straight; in umbilical view 4 globular, loosely embracing chambers, increasing moderately in size, sutures deeply depressed, straight, umbilicus large, enclosed by surrounding chambers, aperture umbilical, bordered by a thickened, narrow rim; in edge view chambers arranged in a high, loosely coiled spire (modified from Olsson and others, 2006). [Wade et al. 2018]

Wall type:
Cancellate, normal perforate, spinose, ruber/sacculifer-type wall texture. [Wade et al. 2018]

Maximum diameter of holotype 0.62 mm, thickness 0.54 mm. [Wade et al. 2018]

Character matrix
test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4-4 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Global in low to mid-latitudes. [Wade et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology
Pearson and others (2001) recorded this species (as S. cf. S. praeturritilina) as a deep dwelling form in the upper Eocene. However Douglas and Savin (1978) and Boersma and others (1987) recorded relatively negative δ18O for this species from the Oligocene, suggesting that it might have migrated into shallower water habitats. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light _13C and very heavy _18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Coxall et al. (2000); Pearson et al. (2001a)

Phylogenetic relations
Olsson and others (2006) suggested that Subbotina gortanii evolved from Subbotina yeguaensis by an increase in the height of the spire. [Wade et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Subbotina yeguaensis - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 f6.2; Wade et al. 2018.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: The range of Subbotina gortanii is poorly defined. It ranges from the middle Eocene Zone E13 (Olsson and others, 2006) through the Oligocene to at least upper Oligocene Zone O6/O7 (=P22) (Spezzaferri and Premoli Silva, 1991). Pujol (1983) recorded a range to the early Miocene Zone N5/6 = Zone M2/3. Leckie and others (1993) find the highest occurrence close to the Oligocene/Miocene boundary at Sites 803 and 628A, however many of these bullate forms may be Subbotina corpulenta. [Wade et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within O7 zone (22.96-25.21Ma, top in Aquitanian stage). Data source: Wade et al. 2018
First occurrence (base): within E13 zone (37.99-39.97Ma, base in Bartonian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Wade et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.10 p.318; Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 6, p. 138


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Bermudez, P. J. (1961). Contribucion al estudio de las Globigerinidea de la region Caribe-Antillana (Paleoceno-Reciente). Editorial Sucre, Caracas. 1119-1393. gs

Blow, W. H. & Banner, F. T. (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In, Eames, F. E., Banner, F. T., Blow, W. H. & Clarke, W. J. (eds) Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 61-151. gs

Blow, W. H. (1969). Late middle Eocene to Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In, Bronnimann, P. & Renz, H. H. (eds) Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva, 1967. E J Brill, Leiden 380-381. gs

Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

Borsetti, A. M. (1959). Tre nuovo Foraminiferi plactonici dell'Oligocene Piacentino. Giornale di Geologia. 27: 205-212. gs

Charollais, J. et al. (1980). Les Marnes a foraminiferes et les schistes a Meletta des chaines subalpines septentrionales (Haute-Savoie, France). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 73(1): 9-69. gs O

Douglas, R. G. & Savin, S. M. (1978). Oxygen isotopic evidence for the depth stratification of Tertiary and Cretaceous foraminifera. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 3: 175-196. gs

Fleisher, R. L. (1974a). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 23: 1001-1072. gs O

Khalilov, D. M. (1956). 0 pelagicheskoy faune foraminifer Paleogenovykh otlozheniy Azerbaydzhana [Pelagic Foraminifera of the Paleogene Deposits of the Azerbaizhan SSR]. Trudy Instituta Geologii, Akademiya Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR. 17: 234-255. gs

Leckie, R. M., Farnham, C. & Schmidt, M. G. (1993). Oligocene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of Hole 803D (Ontong Java Plateau) and Hole 628A (Little Bahama Bank), and comparison with the southern high latitudes. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 130: 113-136. gs

Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (2006a). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Globigerina, Globoturborotalita, Subbotina, and Turborotalita. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication . 41(Chap 6): 111-168. gs O

Pearson, P. N. & Wade, B. S. (2015). Systematic taxonomy of exceptionally well-preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Eocene/Oligocene boundary of Tanzania. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 45: 1-85. gs

Pearson, P. N. et al. (2001a). Warm tropical sea surface temperatures in the Late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs. Nature. 413: 481-487. gs

Pujol, C. (1983). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the South-Western Atlantic (Rio Grande Rise): Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 72. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 72: 623-673. gs

Rincón, D. et al. (2007). Eocene–Pliocene planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy from the continental margin of the southwest Caribbean. Stratigraphy. 4: 261-311. gs

Snyder, S. W. & Waters, V. J. (1985). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Goban Spur Region, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 80. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 80: 439-472. gs

Spezzaferri, S. & Premoli Silva, I. (1991). Oligocene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoclimatic interpretation from Hole 538A, DSDP Leg 77, Gulf of Mexico. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 83: 217-263. gs

Stainforth, R. M. (1974). Nomenclature of some large Eo-Oligocene Globigerinas, in Jung, P. (ed.), Contributions to the geology and paleobiology of the Caribbean and adjacent areas. Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel. 84: 256-263. gs

Stainforth, R. M., Lamb, J. L., Luterbacher, H., Beard, J. H. & Jeffords, R. M. (1975). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal zonation and characteristics of index forms. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Articles. 62: 1-425. gs O

Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Edgar, K. M. & Premoli Silva, I. (2018b). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Subbotina. In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication . 46(Chap 10): 307-330. gs


Subbotina gortanii compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 21-5-2024

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