Globigerinatheka index

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinatheka -> Globigerinatheka index
Sister taxa: G. semiinvoluta, G. tropicalis, G. luterbacheri, G. euganea, G. index, G. curryi, G. barri, G. korotkovi, G. kugleri, G. mexicana, G. subconglobata, G. sp.


Citation: Globigerinatheka index (Finlay 1939)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerinoides index
Taxonomic discussion: At high latitudes (including the type locality), specimens of G. index with typically incised sutures commonly display poorly developed secondary spiral apertures or are even devoid of them. Even though the overall shape, which recalls some Neogene Globigerinoides, and the incised sutures differentiate G.
index from all other globigerinathekids, this species has frequently been misidentified (see synonymy list). Hagn (1956) described Globigerinoides macrostoma as a new species. According to Bolli (1972), G. macrostoma should be considered as a junior synonym of G. index, with which it shares the same features: Hagn’s figures of the specimen he identified as G. index is in fact attributable to G. tropicalis, and he created the new species G. macrostoma for the ‘true G. index’.
Judging from the original figures, the paratype of G. index illustrated by Finlay in his fig. 87 seems to exhibit some similarities in general shape with G. korotkovi Keller, but redrawing of Finlay’s paratype by Hornibrook (1958) shows well the incised sutures lacking in Keller’s species. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides index, Globigerinoides macrostoma

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Well defined incised sutures and large, high-arched, primary aperture located above the suture between the first two chambers of the final whorl.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Spinose, cancellate, frequently encrusted, with mainly cylindrical pores, about 4 to 5 mm in diameter. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Morphology: Test slightly elongate, subrectangular in outline, rather compact, broadly rounded and subrectangular in side view; early chambers poorly visible, arranged in a low trochospire of possibly 2 to 3 whorls, with the last whorl consisting of 3 inflated chambers at least twice as large as earlier chambers, antepenultimate and penultimate chambers of almost equal size separated by a vertical suture in umbilical view, the last chamber making almost one-half of the whole test; sutures of the inner chambers poorly visible, possibly straight or slightly curved, sutures in the last whorl distinct, deeply incised, straight and radial; primary aperture, umbilical, a rather high and large, symmetrical arch at the base of the last chamber, frequently bordered by a thick lip, two medium-sized, semicircular arched, secondary apertures at the base of the last chamber above the sutures of previous chambers. Bullae are not common. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Size: Dimensions for population range from 0.35 mm to 0.55 mm. Diameter of the holotype 0.4 mm. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Subquadratechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thick lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.0-3.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan, but more abundant in high latitudes. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Cosmopolitan; based on Premoli Silva et al. (2006)

Isotope paleobiology: Stable isotope data indicates depleted ∂18O and enriched ∂13C values suggesting a mixed layer habitat, comparable to co-occurring Acarinina, but possibly with a greater tendency to sink at gametogenesis (Boersma and others, 1979; Pearson and others, 1993, 2001). This paleohabitat is supported by boron isotope data (Pearson and Palmer, 1999). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy δ13C and relatively light δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Boersma et al. (1979); Pearson et al. (2001a); Pearson & Palmer (1999)

Phylogenetic relations: There is a general agreement that G. index is related to G. tropicalis, which is its tropical equivalent according to Blow (1969) and Jenkins (1971). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinatheka subconglobata - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1.
Likely descendants: Globigerinatheka tropicalis;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Described from the middle Eocene of New Zealand, the extinction of G. index has been used for approximating the upper boundary of the Eocene at the high southern latitudes (Jenkins, 1971). It appears in upper E9. At middle latitudes G. index decreases in abundance in mid Zone E15 and disappears at the E15/E16 boundary (Berggren and Pearson, Chapter 2, this volume). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
The LAD of Globigerinatheka index marks the base of zone E16 / top of E15 (Wade et al. 2011)
Last occurrence (top): at top of E15 zone (100% up, 34.7Ma, in Priabonian stage). Data source: zonal marker (Wade et al. 2011)
First occurrence (base): in upper part of E9 zone (80% up, 43.4Ma, in Lutetian stage). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 7, p. 183


Baumann, P. (1970). Mikropalaentologische und stratigraphische Untersuchungen der obereozaenen-oligozaenen Scaglia im zentralen Apennin (Italien). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 63: 1133-1211. gs

Beckmann, J. P. (1953). Die Foraminiferen der Oceanic Formation (Eocaen-Oligocaen) von Barbados, Kl. Antillen. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 46(2): 301-412. gs V O

Berggren, W. A. (1992). Paleogene planktonic foraminifer magnetobiostratigraphy of the southern Kerguelen Plateau (sites 747-749). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 120: 551-568. gs V O

Blow, W. H. & Banner, F. T. (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In, Eames, F. E., Banner, F. T., Blow, W. H. & Clarke, W. J. (eds) Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 61-151. gs

Blow, W. H. (1969). Late middle Eocene to Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In, Bronnimann, P. & Renz, H. H. (eds) Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva, 1967. E J Brill, Leiden 380-381. gs

Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

Boersma, A., Shackleton, N. J., Hall, M. A. & Given, Q. (1979). Carbon and oxygen isotope records at DSDP site 384 (North Atlantic) and some Paleocene paleotemperatures and carbon isotope variations in the Atlantic Ocean. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 43: 695-717. gs

Bolli, H. M. (1957a). Planktonic foraminifera from the Eocene Navet and San Fernando formations of Trinidad. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr., Tappan, H., Beckmann, J. P., Bolli, H. M., Montanaro Gallitelli, E. & Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 155-172. gs V O

Bolli, H. M. (1972b). The genus Globigerinatheka Bronnimann. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 2(3): 109-136. gs

Brady, H. B. (1879). Notes on some of the reticularian Rhizopoda of the "Challenger" expedition. I.- On new or little known arenaceous types. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. 19: 20-63. gs

Coccioni, R., Monaco, P., Monechi, S., Nocchi, M. & Parisi, G. (1988). Biostratigraphy of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at Massignano, (Ancona, Italy). In, Premoli Silva, I., Coccioni, R. & Montanari, A. (eds) The Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in the Marche-Umbria Basin (Italy). International Subcommission on Paleogene Stratigraphy, Ancona 59-80. gs

Cushman, J. A. (1925d). New foraminifera from the Upper Eocene of Mexico. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research. 1(1): 4-9. gs V O

Finlay, H. J. (1939b). New Zealand foraminifera: Key species in stratigraphy - no. 2. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 69(1): 89-128. gs

Fleisher, R. L. (1974a). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 23: 1001-1072. gs V O

Hagn, H. (1956). Geologische und Palaontologische untersuchungen im Tertial des Monte Brione und seiner Umgebung. Palaeontographica Abteilung A Palaeozoologie Stratigraphie. 107(3-6): 67-210. gs

Hornibrook, N. d. B. (1958). New Zealand Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary foraminiferal zones and some overseas correlations. Micropaleontology. 4: 25-38. gs

Huber, B. T. (1991c). Paleogene and Early Neogene Planktonic Foraminifer Biostratigraphy of Sites 738 and 744, Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Indian Ocean). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 119: 427-449. gs V O

Jenkins, D. G. (1971). New Zealand Cenozoic Planktonic Foraminifera. New Zealand Geological Survey, Paleontological Bulletin. 42: 1-278. gs

Keijzer, F. G. (1945). Outline of the geology of the eastern part of the Province of Oriente, Cuba (E of 76° W.L.), with notes on the geology of other parts of the island. Publicaties uit het Geographisch en uit het Mineralogisch-Geologisch Instituut der Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, Physiographisch-Geologische Reeks, ser II,. 6: 1-239. gs

Krasheninnikov, V. A. & Basov, I. A. (1983). Stratigraphy of Cretaceous sediments of the Falkland Plateau based on planktonic foraminifers, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 71. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 71: 789-820. gs

McKeel, D. R. & Lipps, J. J. (1975). Eocene and Oligocene planktonic foraminifera from the Central and Southern Oregon Coast Range. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 5(4): 249-269. gs

Nishi, H. & Chaproniere, G. C. H. (1994). Eocene-Oligocene subtropical planktonic foraminifers at Site 841,. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 135: 245-266. gs

Nocchi, M., Parisi, G., Monaco, P., Monechi, S. & Madile, M. (1988b). Eocene and early Oligocene micropaleontology and paleoenvironments in SE Umbria, Italy. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 67: 181-244. gs

Nocchi, M., Amici, E. & Premoli Silva, I. (1991). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Paleogene faunas from the subantarctic transect, Leg 114. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 114: 233-273. gs

Pearson, P. N. & Palmer, M. R. (1999). Middle Eocene seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Science. 284: 1824-1826. gs

Pearson, P. N., Shackleton, N. J. & Hall, M. A. (1993). Stable isotope paleoecology of middle Eocene planktonic foraminifera and multi-species isotope stratigraphy, DSDP Site 523, South Atlantic. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 23: 123-140. gs

Poag, C. W. & Commeau, J. A. (1995). Paleocene to middle Miocene planktic foraminifera of the southwestern Salisbury Embayment, Virginia and Maryland: Biostratigraphy, allostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 25: 134-155. gs

Postuma, J. A. (1971). Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Elsevier for Shell Group, The Hague. 1-406. gs

Premoli Silva, I. & Spezzaferri, S. (1990). Paleogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental remarks on paleogene sediments from Indian Ocean sites, Leg 115. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 115: 277-314. gs V O

Premoli Silva, I., Wade, B. S. & Pearson, P. N. (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Globigerinatheka and Orbulinoides. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 7): 169-212. gs V O

Quilty, P. G. (1969). Upper Eocene planktonic foraminiferida from Albany, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 52(2): 41-58. gs

Samuel, O. & Salaj, J. (1968). Microbiostratigraphy and Foraminifera of the Slovak Carpathian Paleogene. Geologicky Ustav Dionyza Stura, Bratislava. 1-232. gs

Snyder, S. W. & Waters, V. J. (1985). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Goban Spur Region, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 80. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 80: 439-472. gs

Stainforth, R. M., Lamb, J. L., Luterbacher, H., Beard, J. H. & Jeffords, R. M. (1975). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal zonation and characteristics of index forms. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Articles. 62: 1-425. gs V O

Stott, L. D. & Kennett, J. P. (1990). The Paleoceanographic and Paleoclimatic signature of the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Antarctic: Stable isotopic results from ODP Leg 113. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 113: 829-848. gs

Todd, R. (1966). Smaller Foraminifera from Guam. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper. 403(1): 1-36. gs

Toumarkine, M. (1971). Etude des Foraminifères planctoniques de deux sondages (H-S49 et PGYT-31) dans l’ Eocène de la Montagne du Bakony (Transdanubie, Hongrie). Annales Instituti Geologici Publici Hungarici. 54: 283-299. gs

Toumarkine, M. (1975). Middle and Late Eocene planktonic foraminifera from the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Leg 32 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 32: 735-751. gs

Toumarkine, M. (1978). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Paleogene of Sites 360 to 364 and the Neogene of Sites 362A, 363 and 364 Leg 40,. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 40: 679-721. gs

Toumarkine, M. (1983). Les Foraminifères planctoniques de l’Eocène moyen et supérieur des régions tropicales à temperées chaudes. In, p1-219 (ed.) . PhD thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6 1-219. gs

van Eijden, A. J. M. & Smit, J. (1991). Eastern Indian Ocean Cretaceous and Paleogene quantitative biostratigraphy. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 121: 77-123. gs

Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., Berggren, W. A. & Pälike, H. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews. 104: 111-142. gs


Globigerinatheka index compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 19-4-2021

Taxon Search:
Advanced Search

Short stable page link: Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Comments (0)

No comments yet on this page. Please do add comments if you spot any problems, or have information to share

Add Comment

* Required information
Captcha Image
Powered by Commentics