Guembelitrioides nuttalli

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Guembelitrioides -> Guembelitrioides nuttalli
Sister taxa: G. nuttalli, G. sp.


Citation: Guembelitrioides nuttalli (Hamilton 1953)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerinoides nuttalli
Taxonomic discussion: Guembelitrioides nuttalli is a common constituent of middle Eocene assemblages but has generally been described under the name Globigerinoides higginsi Bolli. This species displays some morphological variability of the number of chambers and height of the spire, the range of which is well exemplified by both nuttalli and higginsi holotypes. Other variable features are the possible presence of more than one supplementary aperture, the size of the last chamber and the primary aperture and possible presence of a bulla-like final chamber. Stainforth and others (1975) included higginsi in the genus Globigerina as they did not consider the presence of secondary sutural apertures of generic importance. Pujol (1983) illustrated a high-spired specimen as Globigerina higginsi, which is not conspecific with G. nuttalli and resembles Subbotina gortanii. Warraich and Ogasawara (2001) also figured a high-spired specimen that also resembles S. gortanii. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides nuttalli

Type images:

Distinguishing features: The very high spire, lobate periphery, globular chambers and supplementary apertures typically characterize this species.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Cancellate, spinose, sacculifertype, reticulate wall. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Morphology: Test trochospiral, initially moderately high spired to helicospiral late in ontogeny; chambers globigeriniform, mainly spherical, increasing rather rapidly in size as added, the last one often somewhat ovate, 9-10 to occasionaly 15, arranged in 2½ to 3 loosely coiled whorls; periphery of the last whorls strongly lobate; sutures radial, ranging from moderately depressed in the initial spire to strongly depressed in the adult; umbilicus narrow and deep sometimes covered by a bulla of variable size; primary aperture a medium high arch, umbilical in position; one to more supplementary apertures may be present along the sutures on the spiral side of the final whorl(s). [Olsson et al. 2006]

Size: Holotype height 0.48 mm, width 0.45 mm; largest diameter of higginsi holotype 0.55 mm. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Highperiphery:N/Aaperture border:N/A
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Mid to low [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Low to middle latitudes; based on Olsson et al. (2006c)

Isotope paleobiology: Guembelitrioides nuttalli has carbon and oxygen stable isotopic characters intermediate between the muricate species and the subbotinids, suggesting an intermediate depth habitat (Pearson and others, 1993). [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light δ13C and relatively heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Pearson et al. (1993)

Phylogenetic relations: Hillebrandt (1976) considered Bolli’s types of G. higginsi as conspecific with Globigerina lozanoi Colom, but he later (1976) stated that G. higginsi (= G. nuttalli) was descended from lozanoi. Further, Blow (1979, p. 863) suggested that there are transitional forms between lozanoi and higginsi (= nuttalli). According to him, “both taxa are very similar in dorsal morphology” and the “trends involved are merely confined to a simple increase in the height of the trochospire and the acquisition of supplementary apertures on spiral side” with both lozanoi and higginsi (= nuttalli) morphotypes coexisting in Zone P9 (= E7). However, we disagree that G. nuttalli is derived from lozanoi. It is difficult to see the derivation of the 4-chambered, spinose, highly lobulate nuttalli from the 6-chambered, nonspinose, slightly lobulate lozanoi. Furthermore, G. nuttalli has a high porosity, cancellate sacculifer-type wall that also occurs in Parasubbotina inaequispira, which is a highly lobulate taxon. We believe that P. inaequispira is a more likely ancestor of Guembelitrioides, but intermediate forms have yet to be found. Subbotina yeguaensis is also a possible ancestral taxon since it has a lobulate test with a moderately elevated initial spire, although it is not as lobulate as P. inaequispira.
Blow (1979) also suggested that higginsi (= nuttalli) may be ancestral to Globigerinatheka mexicana (= Porticulasphaera in Blow 1979). This relationship, however, is rejected here, as transitional forms between G. nuttalli and G. mexicana have not been observed. Nevertheless G. nuttalli is regarded by us as the most likely ancestor of the Globigerinatheka group (see Premoli Silva and others, Chapter 7, this volume). [Olsson et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Parasubbotina inaequispira - at confidence level 2 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 - Subbotina yeguaensis also suggested as a possibility..
Likely descendants: Globigerinatheka subconglobata;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Base E8 to top E10. [Olsson et al. 2006]
The LAD of Guembilitriodes nuttalli marks the base of zone E11 / top of E10 (Wade et al. 2011)
Last occurrence (top): at top of E10 zone (100% up, 41.9Ma, in Lutetian stage). Data source: zonal marker (Wade et al. 2011)
First occurrence (base): at base of E8 zone (0% up, 45.7Ma, in Lutetian stage). Data source: zonal marker (Wade et al. 2011)

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 5, p. 84


Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

Bolli, H. M. (1957b). Planktonic foraminifera from the Oligocene-Miocene Cipero and Lengua formations of Trinidad, B.W.I. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr., Tappan, H., Beckmann, J. P., Bolli, H. M., Montanaro Gallitelli & E. Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 97-123. gs V O

Hamilton, E. L. (1953). Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Recent planktonic foraminifera from mid-Pacific flat-topped seamounts. Journal of Paleontology. 27(2): 204-237. gs

Hillebrandt, A. , von (1976). Los foraminiferos planctonicos, nummulitidos y coccolitoforidos de la zona de Globorotalia palmerae del Cuisiense (Eoceno inferior) en el SE de Espana, (Provincias de Murcia y Alicante. Revista Española de Micropaleontología. 8(3): 323-394. gs

Nocchi, M., Amici, E. & Premoli Silva, I. (1991). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Paleogene faunas from the subantarctic transect, Leg 114. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 114: 233-273. gs

Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N. & Huber, B. T. (2006c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 5): 67-110. gs V O

Pearson, P. N., Shackleton, N. J. & Hall, M. A. (1993). Stable isotope paleoecology of middle Eocene planktonic foraminifera and multi-species isotope stratigraphy, DSDP Site 523, South Atlantic. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 23: 123-140. gs

Pearson, P. N. et al. (2004). Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa and Lindi areas of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 1–5. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 39: 25-62. gs

Poag, C. W. & Commeau, J. A. (1995). Paleocene to middle Miocene planktic foraminifera of the southwestern Salisbury Embayment, Virginia and Maryland: Biostratigraphy, allostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 25: 134-155. gs

Pujol, C. (1983). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the South-Western Atlantic (Rio Grande Rise): Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 72. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 72: 623-673. gs

Saito, T., Thompson, P. R. & Breger, D. (1976). Skeletal ultra-microstructure of some elongate-chambered planktonic foraminifera and related species. In, Takayanagi, Y. & Saito, T. (eds) Progress in Micropaleontology, Special Publication. Micropaleontology Press, The American Museum of Natural History, New York 278-304. gs

Stainforth, R. M., Lamb, J. L., Luterbacher, H., Beard, J. H. & Jeffords, R. M. (1975). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal zonation and characteristics of index forms. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Articles. 62: 1-425. gs V O

Toumarkine, M. (1975). Middle and Late Eocene planktonic foraminifera from the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Leg 32 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 32: 735-751. gs

Toumarkine, M. (1983). Les Foraminifères planctoniques de l’Eocène moyen et supérieur des régions tropicales à temperées chaudes. In, p1-219 (ed.) . PhD thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6 1-219. gs

Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., Berggren, W. A. & Pälike, H. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews. 104: 111-142. gs

Warraich, M. Y. & Ogasawara, K. (2001). Tethyan Paleocene-Eocene planktic foraminifera from the Rakhi Nala and Zinda Pir land sections of the Sulaiman Range, Pakistan. Science Reports of the Institute of Geosciences, University of Tsukuba, Section B Geological Sciences. 22: 1-59. gs


Guembelitrioides nuttalli compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 18-4-2021

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