pforams@mikrotax - Subbotina pforams@mikrotax - Subbotina


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Subbotina
Sister taxa: Beella, Globigerina, Globigerinella, Protentella, Quiltyella ⟩⟨ Ciperoella, Globigerinoides, Globigerinoidesella, Globoturborotalita, Orbulina, Praeorbulina, Sphaeroidinella, Sphaeroidinellopsis, Trilobatus, Turborotalita ⟩⟨ Dentoglobigerina, Globoquadrina ⟩⟨ Catapsydrax, Clavatorella, Paragloborotalia, Protentelloides ⟩⟨ Eoglobigerina, Globigerinatheka, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Orbulinoides, Parasubbotina, Pseudoglobigerinella, Subbotina
- sorted by lineage and stratigraphically (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)
roesnaensis group
Subbotina projecta
Like S. tecta but with higher trochospiral coiling, wider, deeper, and squarer umbilicus; also the teeth are often elongate 
Subbotina tecta
Like S. eocaena but with more spherical chambers, a large, prominent, apertural tooth.
Subbotina jacksonensis
Test globular, chambers much embracing. Final chamber reduced, projecting over and covering the umbilicus.
Subbotina corpulenta
Large adult test, lobulate with moderately elevated initial spire. Chambers globular, final chamber cantilevered and directed over the umbilicus.
Subbotina eocaena
Large adult test with globular, embracing, chambers. Aperture low-arched, with thin irregular lip.
Subbotina gortanii
Test trochospiral, loosely coiled, with globular chambers, and umbilical aperture.
Subbotina crociapertura
Chambers globular, slightly embracing. Aperture characteristically crooked, high-arched, and with prominent regular lip.
Subbotina yeguaensis
Test lobulate, moderately elevated trochospire. Aperture with somewhat broad lip that tapers both anteriorly and posteriorly.
Subbotina senni
Globular moderately elevated trochospiral test. Thick calcite crust covers and closes pores, and surrounds the umbilicus.
Subbotina roesnaesensis
Very low trochospiral, lobulate test with 3½-4 rapidly enlarging, ovoid-shaped, loosely embracing chambers, and ruber-type wall texture.
patagonica -> angiporoides lineage
Subbotina utilisindex
Like S. linaperta but with more compact coiling, more equidimensional size of final whorl chambers; lower and more umbilical aperture, with less-developed lip; also less coarsely cancellate wall.
Subbotina angiporoides
Like S. linaperta but chambers more globular and final chamber usually strongly embracing, resembling a bulla and extending over the umbilicus.
Subbotina minima
Like S. linaperta but chambers do not increase rapidly in size, hence outline triangular
Subbotina linaperta
Test low trochospiral, globular, with 3-3⅓ chambers in final whorl. Final chamber large and compressed. Apeture highly arched, with well-developed lip. Wall texture coarsely cancellate.
Subbotina patagonica
Test compact, low trochospiral, with 3-3½ rapidly enlarging chambers. Aperture arched, semicircular. Wall texture coarsely cancellate, sacculifer-type.
Paleocene species
Subbotina cancellata
Test tightly coiled, compact, rounded, and slightly lobulate; 3½-4 chambers in final whorl. Aperture umbilical with broad, somewhat irregular lip. Wall coarsely cancellate on all chambers.
Subbotina hornibrooki
Test compact, low trochospiral with 3½ to nearly 4 globular embracing chambers in final whorl. Final chamber reduced and directed over the umbilicus. Wall texture coarsely cancellate, sacculifer-type.
Subbotina velascoensis
Test tightly coiled, subquadrate, test with compressed chambers. Final chamber much compressed, elongate, forms about half of the test and typically overhangs the earlier chambers. Aperture umbilical; thin elongate lip along part of aperture with squared-of ends. The test wall is coarsely and symmetrically cancellate, spinose.
Subbotina triloculinoides
Test medium sized, lobulate, trilobate with 3-3½ chambers in final whorl, increasing moderately in size. The ultimate chamber forms up to ½ of the test. Intercameral sutures depressed, straight to slightly curved on umbilical and spiral sides of the test. Umbilicus narrow, deep, often covered by a well developed apertural lip. Aperture umbilical, slightly asymmetrical towards an extraumbilical direction. The test walls strongly cancellate, spinose.
Subbotina triangularis
Test triangular in umbilical view, axial periphery broadly rounded. 3½ loosely coiled chambers in final whorl. Final chamber low oval, often smaller than the one before. Umbilicus narrow, deep, sometimes obscured by final chamber. Aperture umbilical to slightly extraumbilical, with a thin, sometimes irregular lip. Wall cancellate, spinose.
Subbotina trivialis
Test small (<250µm) low trochospiral, tightly coiled with 3½ chambers in final whorl Aperture umbilical with a thin lip. The ultimate chamber is equal to, or slightly smaller than the penultimate one. The wall is weakly cancellate and spinose. The spines are set at the junctures of the cancellate ridges. The umbilicus is small and nearly closed by the tight coiling.
Subbotina sp.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species


Citation: Subbotina Brotzen&Pozaryska, 1961
taxonomic rank: Genus
Type species: Globigerina triloculinoides Plummer, 1926, emended.
Taxonomic discussion: Most species included in this genus were originally described as Globigerina. However, they differ in having a sacculifer or sacculifer/ruber-type wall (with the possible exceptions of S. roesnaesensis n. sp. and S. crociapertura, which show transition to the bulloides-type wall). Subbotina is distinguished from Globoturborotalita by its larger size, generally more embracing chambers and more asymmetrical aperture. Subbotina was emended to include the spinose wall texture by Olsson and others (1999). In some Eocene species extensive, heavy gametogenic calcification is observed. This apparently reflects a greater range of adaptation to the water column in the Eocene although isotope data indicates that most species were thermocline dwelling forms.
[Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Subbotina

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Globigerinidae): Wall spinose, usually with 3½-6 globular chambers in final whorl, trochospiral or planispiral
This taxon: Low trochospiral, tripartite test, with 3-4 rapidly inflating, globular chambers in final whorl. Umbilicus nearly closed by tight coiling. Wall cancellate with spines at nodes of the ridges, +/- spine collars.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Phylogenetic relations

Subbotina evolved from Eoglobigerina eobulloides in the lower part of Zone Pα. Globoturborotalita and Globigerina have their origin in the genus Subbotina. [Olsson et al. 2006]
NB Alternatively Koutsoukos (2014) suggests origin from Praemurica.

Most likely ancestor: Eoglobigerina - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006. .
Likely descendants: Dentoglobigerina; Globigerina; Globoturborotalita; plot with descendants

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Base of Zone Pα to the top of O6.
Plummer, 1926.
[Olsson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): at top of O7 zone (100% up, 23Ma, in Aquitanian stage). Data source: Total of ranges of the species in this database
First occurrence (base): within P1a subzone (65.25-65.72Ma, base in Danian stage). Data source: Total of ranges of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 6, p. 125


Brotzen, F. & Pozaryska, K. (1961). Foraminiferes du Paleocene et de l'Eocene inferieur en Pologne septentrionale; remarques paleogeographiques. Revue de Micropaléontologie. 4: 155-166. gs

Koutsoukos, E. (2014). Phenotypic plasticity, speciation, and phylogeny in Early Danian planktic foraminifera. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 44: 109-142. gs

Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (2006a). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Globigerina, Globoturborotalita, Subbotina, and Turborotalita. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication . 41(Chap 6): 111-168. gs O


Subbotina compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 18-6-2024

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