Turborotalia frontosa

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globanomalinidae -> Turborotalia -> Turborotalia frontosa
Sister taxa: T. cunialensis, T. cocoaensis, T. cerroazulensis, T. pomeroli, T. frontosa ⟩⟨ T. ampliapertura, T. increbescens, T. altispiroides, T. possagnoensis, T. sp.


Citation: Turborotalia frontosa Subbotina 1953
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina frontosa
Taxonomic discussion: Subbotina (1953) illustrated a variable suite of specimens from the Kuban river section, demonstrating a broad species concept. The holotype (figured by SEM for the first time in Pl. 15.5, Figs. 1-3) is a slightly kummerform specimen. Unaware of Subbotina’s work, Bolli (1957c) erected the species boweri using a specimen (also figured by SEM for the first time in Plate 15.5, Figs. 5-7) that is very similar to one of Subbotina’s paratypes (her pl. 12, fig. 4a-c). Many authors (e.g., Dieci, 1965; Toumarkine and Bolli, 1970, and Stainforth and others, 1975) have considered the two as synonymous, but some (e.g., Blow, 1979, p. 1264) have distinguished the two taxa on the basis of the supposedly tighter coiling of boweri and the fact that the latter supposedly has three rather than three and a half chambers in the final whorl. These apparent differences can be explained, however, by the reduced size of the final chamber in Subbotina’s holotype.
The distinctive wall texture of this species, and its ontogenetic development, are discussed in detail by Hemleben and Olsson (Chapter 4, this volume). [Pearson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina frontosa, Globigerina ayalai

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Like Subbotina but distinguished by pustulose wall texture, high arched aperture and slightly compressed final chamber. Also has a strong bias in coiling direction. Chambers more globular than in other Turborotalia species.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Weakly cancellate with raised cylindrical pustules on the early chambers, becoming smoother on final chamber; tendency to defoliate. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Morphology: Trochospiral, globorotaliform in early chambers, globigerinform in last whorl, which comprises 3 to 3½ chambers; chambers inflated, radially compressed, increasing rapidly in size, with final chamber making up about half of test (unless kummerform, as holotype); dorsal sutures straight, moderately depressed; aperture a broad, high arch in intra-extraumbilical position, sometimes extending almost to periphery, fringed in most specimens by a pronounced imperforate lip of constant thickness; umbilicus very narrow; ventral sutures slightly curved, depressed; strong tendency for dextral coiling. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Size: Holotype length 0.44 mm, breadth 0.31 mm [Pearson et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.0-3.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. [Pearson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Cosmopolitan; based on Pearson et al. (2006)

Isotope paleobiology: This species was a relatively deep-dwelling form according to Boersma and others (1987; recorded as T. boweri) and Pearson and others (1993, 2001). [Pearson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light δ13C and very heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Boersma et al. (1987); Pearson (1993); Pearson et al. (2001a)

Phylogenetic relations: Evolved from Globanomalina australiformis, according to Hemleben and Olsson (Chapter 4, this volume). [Pearson et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Globanomalina australiformis - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Pearson et al. (2006), fig 15.1.
Likely descendants: Turborotalia pomeroli; Turborotalia possagnoensis;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Lower to middle Eocene, from within Zone E7 to upper Zone E11
(Toumarkine and Bolli, 1970; Toumarkine and Luterbacher, 1985). [Pearson et al. 2006]
The FAD of Turborotalia frontosa marks the base of zone E7b / top of E7a (Wade et al. 2011)
Last occurrence (top): in upper part of E11 zone (80% up, 40.7Ma, in Bartonian stage). Data source: Pearson et al. (2006), fig. 15.1
First occurrence (base): at base of E7b subzone (0% up, 48.3Ma, in Ypresian stage). Data source: zonal marker (Wade et al. 2011)

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Pearson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 15, p. 452


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Pearson, P. N., Premec-Fucek, V. & Premoli Silva, I. (2006b). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Turborotalia. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 15): 433-460. gs V O

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Toumarkine, M. (1978). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Paleogene of Sites 360 to 364 and the Neogene of Sites 362A, 363 and 364 Leg 40,. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 40: 679-721. gs

Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., Berggren, W. A. & Pälike, H. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews. 104: 111-142. gs


Turborotalia frontosa compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 15-4-2021

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