pforams@mikrotax - Turborotalita pforams@mikrotax - Turborotalita


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Turborotalita
Sister taxa: Beella, Globigerina, Globigerinella, Protentella, Quiltyella ⟩⟨ Ciperoella, Globigerinoides, Globigerinoidesella, Globoturborotalita, Orbulina, Praeorbulina, Sphaeroidinella, Sphaeroidinellopsis, Trilobatus, Turborotalita ⟩⟨ Dentoglobigerina, Globoquadrina ⟩⟨ Catapsydrax, Clavatorella, Paragloborotalia, Protentelloides ⟩⟨ Eoglobigerina, Globigerinatheka, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Orbulinoides, Parasubbotina, Pseudoglobigerinella, Subbotina
Daughter taxa (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)
Turborotalita clarkei
Five chambers & small, compact outline
Turborotalita humilis
Six or more chambers
Turborotalita quinqueloba
Five chambers & apertural flap
Paleogene species
Turborotalita praequinqueloba
Like T. carcoselleensis but more lobate and wall texture better developed.
Turborotalita carcoselleensis
Test small, slightly lobate, with umbilically directed ultimate chamber, and ruber-type cancellate wall texture.
Turborotalita sp.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species


Citation: Turborotalita Blow and Banner, 1962
taxonomic rank: Genus
Type species: Truncatulina humilis Brady, 1884.
Taxonomic discussion:

Blow and Banner (1962) drew a firm distinction between what they called a reduced final chamber and a true bulla, insisting that their new genus was characterized by the presence of a true bulla. However, this definition is not consistent with the current understanding of the term “bulla” (Hottinger, 2006). In Turborotalita, the “bulla” is essentially a final chamber that is reduced in size and displaced over the umbilicus more than would be expected from the general chamber sequence and sometimes possessing morphological features not seen on earlier chambers. The reduced final chamber often does not possess the characteristic shape of a “bulla”, especially among the early Neogene and Paleogene representatives of the genus. Hence, we emend the generic diagnosis to more specifically refer to the shape and position of the final chamber, which is applicable to all species in the genus. Fleisher (1974) and Kennett and Srinivasan (1983) suggested that the wall is microperforate, but the pore size is macroperforate (typically >2 µm in diameter) and the presence of true spines confirms the relationship of Turborotalita with other spinose macroperforate species. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Catalog entries: Turborotalita

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Globigerinidae): Wall spinose, usually with 3½-6 globular chambers in final whorl, trochospiral or planispiral
This taxon: Minute, with bullate extension of the final chamber, smooth wall, large pores and short conical spines concentrated along the periphery.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Generally small (<300 µm), low trochospiral, relatively flattened, lobate or petaloid in outline (when not encrusted), 4-6 chambers in final whorl, final chamber frequently kummerform, typically displaced towards the umbilicus, often ampullate in shape with a distinct lip, sometimes extending into a flap that may cover the entire umbilicus and end with tunnel-like extensions with one or more openings. Primary aperture umbilical to extraumbilical, narrow to wide, commonly hidden in umbilical view beneath the extended apertural flap of the final chamber. [Pearson & Kucera2018]

Wall type:
Normal perforate, spinose in life, may or may not be covered with a thick calcite crust, which, when present, can greatly modify the test outline. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Modern Turborotalita is distributed globally but is most abundant in temperate latitudes. The few known Oligocene occurrences are widespread, suggesting a global distribution. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Phylogenetic relations

Olsson and others (2006) traced Turborotalita to the middle Eocene Zone E9 (=P11) by assigning Globorotaloides carcoselleensis Toumarkine and Bolli to the genus. They suggested it may have evolved from Globoturborotalita, which itself appeared at the Paleocene / Eocene boundary. However, Koutsoukos (2014) described some exceptionally well-preserved assemblages from the Cretaceous/Paleogene transition off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, including a new species which he called Praemurica nikolasi. We propose that this species is better assigned to Turborotalita on account of the possibly spinose wall (small holes described as minute pores may be spine holes) and general morphology, including particularly the ampullate final chamber. This species tends to have four and a half to five chambers in the final whorl. The highest occurrence of nikolasi was not determined by Koutsoukos (2014) because it extends to the top of that study section (Zone P1c). Other possible Paleocene occurrences include a specimen attributed by Blow (1979, pl. 83, fig. 1) to Globorotalia (Turborotalia) imitata Subbotina from Zone P2 and a specimen attributed by Olsson and others (1999, pl. 12, figs. 10-12) to Globanomalina imitata (Subbotina) from Zone P1b/c. Hence we hypothesize that Turborotalita is a distinct lineage that extends throughout the entire Cenozoic but has rarely been described from Paleogene sediments because of its small size, susceptibility to diagenetic alteration, and perhaps because workers had not expected to find it: resemblance to modern forms has been assumed to be evolutionary convergence rather than phylogenetic continuity. Future studies will hopefully determine the upward range of Turborotalita nikolasi and its relationship to other Turborotalita including T. carcoselleensis and T. quinqueloba. Genetically, modern T. quinqueloba groups with other spinose planktonic foraminifera but its 18S rDNA sequence is the most derived among the spinose species, and the phylogenetic position of the resulting extremely long branch is difficult to constrain (e.g., Aurahs and others, 2009:169; see also Darling and others, 2000, 2003), which is consistent with a deep phylogenetic divergence.  [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Globoturborotalita - at confidence level 2 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:

Lowermost Paleocene (Zone P0; Koutsoukos, 2014, as Praemurica nikolasi) to Recent.

[Pearson & Kucera 2018]
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Total of ranges of the species in this database
First occurrence (base): within E9 zone (43.23-43.85Ma, base in Lutetian stage). Data source: Total of ranges of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Pearson & Kucera 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.12 p.387 (major revision of Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chapter 6, p. 163); Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.167


Aurahs, R., Grimm, G. W., Hemleben, V., Hemleben, C. & Kucera, M. (2009b). Geographical distribution of cryptic genetic types in the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber. Molecular Ecology. 18: 1692-1706. gs

Blow, W. H. & Banner, F. T. (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In, Eames, F. E., Banner, F. T., Blow, W. H. & Clarke, W. J. (eds) Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 61-151. gs

Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

Brady, H. B. (1884). Report on the Foraminifera dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. 9 (Zoology): 1-814. gs

Darling, K. F., Wade, C. M., Stewart, I. A., Kroon, D., Dingle, R. & Brown, A. J. (2000). Molecular evidence for genetic mixing of Arctic and Antarctic subpolar populations of planktonic foraminifers. Nature. 405: 43-47. gs

Darling, K. F., Kucera, M., Wade, C. M. , von Langen, P. & Pak, D. (2003). Seasonal distribution of genetic types of planktonic foraminifer morphospecies in the Santa Barbara Channel and its paleoceanographic implications. Paleoceanography. 18: 1-11. gs

Fleisher, R. L. (1974a). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 23: 1001-1072. gs O

Hottinger, L. (2006). Illustrated glossary of terms used in foraminiferal research. Carnets de Géologie - Memoir. 2: 1-126. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Koutsoukos, E. (2014). Phenotypic plasticity, speciation, and phylogeny in Early Danian planktic foraminifera. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 44: 109-142. gs

Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Berggren, W. A. & Huber, B. T. (1999). Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 1-252. gs

Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (2006a). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Globigerina, Globoturborotalita, Subbotina, and Turborotalita. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication . 41(Chap 6): 111-168. gs O

Pearson, P. N. & Kucera, M. (2018). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Turborotalita. In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication . 46(Chap 12): 385-392. gs


Turborotalita compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 25-4-2024

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