Globigerina bulloides

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerina -> Globigerina bulloides
Sister taxa: G. bulloides, G. falconensis, G. umbilicata ⟩⟨ G. archaeobulloides, G. officinalis, G. sp.


Citation: Globigerina bulloides d’Orbigny, 1826
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina bulloides d’Orbigny, 1826
Synonyms: [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

"The test of Gg. (Gg.) bulloides shows considerable variation in the number and shape of chambers in the final whorl and size of the aperture. This has resulted in the erection of a number of species, ...They are all regarded here as phenotypic variants of Gg. (Gg.) bulloides." [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

  • Globigerina quadrilatera Galloway & Wissler 1927 (Pleistocene California)
  • Globigerina bermudezi Seiglie, 1963 (Late Pleistocene to Recent Cariaco Basin and Caribbean)
  • Globigerina megastoma cariacoensis Rögl and Bolli, 1973 (Late Pleistocene to Recent, Tropical Atlantic)
Globigerina riveroae Bolli and Bermudez, 1965 was also included in this list however, new SEM images of the holotype  indicate it has a cancellate wall, and therefore this form has been moved out of synonymy of G. bulloides [Bridget Wade, November 2017].
Taxonomic discussion:

Globigerina bulloides was described from Recent deposits, near Rimini, Adriatic Sea, Italy (d’Orbigny, 1826) and is a common species in the Neogene. A holotype was never selected. Banner and Blow (1960) designated a lectotype (Banner and Blow, 1960; pl. l, figs. l, 4; illustration reproduced here on Pl. 6.2, Figs. 1-3) from a set of syntypes that were “theoretically”…“included by d’Orbigny in his concept of the species at the time of the first publication”. The syntype suite contained diverse morphologies and selection was aided by reference to two plaster models of bulloides made by d’Orbigny, which constrained d’Orbigny’s core concept. Kennett and Srinivasan (1983) derived G. bulloides from G. praebulloides Blow in the upper part of the lower Miocene. SEM images of the holotype of G. praebulloides (Pl. 6.8, Figs. 4-6) and Globigerinella obesa (Bolli) indicate that G. praebulloides is a junior synonym of G. obesa, which is unclear from Blow’s holotype drawing of G. praebulloides. Globigerinella obesa has a bulloides-type wall texture but it differs from G. bulloides in that the pore concentration is lower (~60 pores/50 mm2 test surface area), the pore diameter is larger (~1.5-2 mm) and the trochospire is lower. It is similar to Globigerinella praesiphonifera in wall structure. These species appear to be a separate phylogenetic lineage from that of G. bulloides. The wall texture characteristic of G. bulloides first appears in Zone O1 in the new species G. archaeobulloides.

[Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Catalog entries: Globigerina bulloides, Globigerina quadrilatera, Globigerina bermudezi, Globigerina megastoma cariacoensis

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Usually 4 chambers in final whorl; Aperture a high symmetrical arch.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Normal perforate, spinose, bulloides-type wall structure. Pore concentrations range from 70-100 pores/50 μm2 test surface area and pore diameters range from 0.7 μm to 0.9 μm. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Morphology: Test low trochospiral consisting of 2½ whorls, lobulate in outline, chambers globular; in spiral view 4 globular, slightly embracing chambers in ultimate whorl, increasing rapidly in size, sutures straight and moderately depressed; in umbilical view 4 globular, slightly embracing chambers, increasing rapidly in size, sutures straight and moderately depressed, umbilicus large, open, enclosed by surrounding chambers, aperture umbilical, a broad arch bordered by an imperforate rim; in edge view chambers globular in shape, slightly embracing. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of lectotype 0.67 mm. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Concavo-convexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Low-moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan but more abundant in middle to high latitudes. Modern G. bulloides is a transitional to polar water species but it also occurs in cool upwelling regions (see Schiebel and Hemleben, 2017). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]
Distribution is centered in temperate areas. Relative abundances decrease toward the tropics. The species is rare in equatorial areas. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983] Middle latitudes, rare in low latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

In modern oceans an abundant, warm water, species [SCOR WG138]

Isotope paleobiology: Observations from plankton tows indicate calcification depths within the upper 30 to 50 m of the water column (e.g. Spero and Lea, 1996; Niebler and others, 1999). Stable isotopes measured on living and fossil G. bulloides have shown that this species secretes its shell out of equilibrium with respect to both carbon and oxygen isotopes (Curry and Matthews, 1981; Kahn and Williams, 1981; Deuser and Ross, 1989; Sautter and Thunell, 1991; Spero and Lea, 1996). Adjustments may be applied to δ13C and δ18O data from well-constrained size ranges to yield either oxygen isotope equilibrium or ambient δ13C of seawater ΣCO2 (Spero and Lea, 1996). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: This species evolved from G. archaeobulloides n. sp. probably in Zone O5. See G. archaeobulloides and G. officinalis entries for previous views on G. bulloides ancestry. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]
Molecular Genotypes recognised (data from PFR2 database, June 2017). References: Darling et al. 2000; Darling et al. 2003; Darling & Wade 2008; Morard et al. 2013; Ujiié & Lipps 2009; Seears et al. 2012; Stewart et al. 2001.

Most likely ancestor: Globigerina archaeobulloides - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Spezzaferri et al. 2018.
Likely descendants: Globigerina falconensis; Globigerina umbilicata;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Upper Oligocene (Zone O5) to Recent. In the Lakes Entrance Oil Shaft, southeastern Australia, Li and McGowran (2000) record G. bulloides as common to abundant throughout Zones P22 (O6-O7) to N17/N18 (M13b-PL1a). It is common in Zone O7 in the Atlantic Slope Project corehole, western Atlantic Ocean (this study). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within O5 zone (26.93-28.09Ma, base in Chattian stage). Data source: Spezzaferri et al. 2018

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Spezzaferri et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.6 p.183; Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.36


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Globigerina bulloides compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 7-3-2021

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