pforams@mikrotax - Globigerinella calida

Globigerinella calida

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinella -> Globigerinella calida
Sister taxa: G. adamsi, G. calida, G. radians, G. siphonifera ⟩⟨ G. clavaticamerata, G. molinae, G. navazuelensis, G. obesa, G. praesiphonifera, G. pseudobesa, G. roeglina ⟩⟨ G. megaperta, G. wagneri, G. sp.


Citation: Globigerinella calida (Parker, 1962)
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina calida Parker, 1962
Taxonomic discussion: Erected by Parker (1962) to differentiate smaller, less planispiral forms with radially elongated chambers from the more planispiral and larger Globigerinella siphonifera. The two species have a distinct ecology, and the G. calida morphology is associated with a specific genetic lineage within the genetically diverse Globigerinella (Weiner et al., 2015), justifying the retention of this species. However, the morphological separation from G. siphonifera is often gradual and the identification is confounded by the existence of Globigerinella radians, making it difficult to apply the species concept consistently (Al-Sabouni et al., 2018). [Brummer & Kucera 2022]

Catalog entries: Globigerina calida, Globigerina calida praecalida

Type images:

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Globigerinella): Test initially trochospiral, becoming nearly planispiral; globular to ovate chambers; aperture umbilical; fine spines cover the test
This taxon: Trochospiral coiling & slightly radially elongate chambers

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Emended description:

Test low trochospiral, equatorial periphery strongly lobulate; axial periphery rounded, chambers subglobular initially, ovate, to rapidly elongate in later stages; 4 to 5 rapidly enlarging chambers in the final whorl; sutures distinct, radial, depressed; surface densely perforate, finely hispid; aperture umbilical, becoming umbilical-extraumbilical , a rather low arch with a narrow lip. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Wall type:
Spinose; Hispid [Aze 2011]


Character matrix
test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Pseudoplanispiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Extraumbilical-peripheral
sp chamber shape:Elongatecoiling axis:Very lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:N/A
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-5.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Tropical to warm subtropical. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983] Low latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

In modern oceans an abundant, temperate water, species [SCOR WG138]

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light ∂13C and relatively heavy ∂18O Cited sources (Aze et al. 2011 appendix S3): this study

Phylogenetic relations: Ge. calida differs from Globigerina (Gg.) bulloides by its ovate to radially elongate chambers and umbilical-extraumbilical aperture and from Ge. siphonifera by its less involute test, lower spire, and more lobulate outline. Loose coiling of the test and well-separated chambers in the final whorl suggest a relationship with Ge. adamsi, which differs in exhibiting digitate chambers.
Ge. calida appears to have evolved from Ge. siphonifera during the Early Pliocene. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983 - but with aequilateralis changed to siphonifera]

Molecular Genotypes (data from PFR2 database, June 2017. References: Ujiié & Lipps 2009; Ujiié et al. 2012; Weiner et al. 2015) .

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinella siphonifera - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, fig. 26.
Likely descendants: Globigerinella adamsi; plot with descendants

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Bolli & Premoli Silva 1973 recorded the FAD of G. calida calida as a useful event in the Late Pleistocene, this was confirmed by Chapronniere et al. 1994. Based on this Wade et al. (2011) included it as an additional event. However this requires separation of G. calida from G. praecalida which do not do here as G. calida is not recognised in the modern plankton.
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): in upper part of N19 zone (64% up, 4.7Ma, in Zanclean stage). Data source: Kennet & Srinivasan 1983

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.240


Aze, T. et al. (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews. 86: 900-927. gs

Brummer, G-J. A. & Kucera, M. (2022). Taxonomic review of living planktonic foraminifera. Journal of Micropalaeontology. 41: 29-74. gs V O

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Lam, A. & Leckie, R. M. (2020a). Late Neogene and Quaternary diversity and taxonomy of subtropical to temperate planktic foraminifera across the Kuroshio Current Extension, northwest Pacific Ocean. Micropaleontology. 66(3): 177-268. gs

Loeblich, A. & Tappan, H. (1994). Foraminifera of the Sahul shelf and Timor Sea. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 31: 1-661. gs V O

Parker, F. L. (1962). Planktonic foraminiferal species in Pacific sediments. Micropaleontology. 8(2): 219-254. gs

Saito, T., Thompson, P. R. & Breger, D. (1976). Skeletal ultra-microstructure of some elongate-chambered planktonic foraminifera and related species. In, Takayanagi, Y. & Saito, T. (eds) Progress in Micropaleontology, Special Publication. Micropaleontology Press, The American Museum of Natural History, New York 278-304. gs

Siccha, M. & Kucera, M. (2017). ForCenS, a curated database of planktonic foraminifera census counts in marine surface sediment samples. Scientific Data. 4(1): 1-12. gs

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J. H. (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39: 145-154. gs

Ujiié, Y., Asami, T., de Garidel-Thoron, T., Liu, H., Ishitani, Y. & de Vargas, C. (2012). Longitudinal differentiation among pelagic populations in a planktic foraminifer. Ecology and Evolution. 2: 1725-1737. gs V O

Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., Berggren, W. A. & Pälike, H. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews. 104: 111-142. gs

Weiner, A. K. M., Weinkauf, M. F. G., Kurasawa, A., Darling, K. F. & Kucera, M. (2015). Genetic and morphometric evidence for parallel evolution of the Globigerinella calida morphotype. Marine Micropaleontology. 114: 19-35. gs

Missing or ambiguous references: Al Sabouni et al. 2018;


Globigerinella calida compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 27-9-2022

Taxon Search:
Advanced Search

Short stable page link: Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Comments (0)

No comments yet on this page. Please do add comments if you spot any problems, or have information to share

Add Comment

* Required information
Captcha Image
Powered by Commentics