pforams@mikrotax - Globigerinoides pforams@mikrotax - Globigerinoides


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides
Sister taxa: Beella, Globigerina, Globigerinella, Protentella, Quiltyella ⟩⟨ Ciperoella, Globigerinoides, Globigerinoidesella, Globoturborotalita, Orbulina, Praeorbulina, Sphaeroidinella, Sphaeroidinellopsis, Trilobatus, Turborotalita ⟩⟨ Dentoglobigerina, Globoquadrina ⟩⟨ Catapsydrax, Clavatorella, Paragloborotalia, Protentelloides ⟩⟨ Eoglobigerina, Globigerinatheka, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Orbulinoides, Parasubbotina, Pseudoglobigerinella, Subbotina
Daughter taxa (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)Granddaughter taxa
extant species
Globigerinoides tenellus
Like G. rubescens but with a small, supplementary aperture.

Globigerinoides elongatus
Like Gs. ruber but final chamber is asymmetrically flattened (compressed)

Globigerinoides conglobatus
Tightly coiled test with flattened chambers and very small umbilicus

Globigerinoides ruber
3 subspherical chambers in final whorl; primary and supplementary apertures, symmetrically placed above a suture.
Globigerinoides ruber subsp. albus
Globigerinoides ruber subsp. ruber

Early Pleistocene species
Globigerinoides rublobatus
Like G. conglobatus but 3 chambers in final whorl, smaller forms show pink pigmentation, aperture located above the final suture

altiaperturus-obliquus-conglobatus lineage
Globigerinoides obliquus
Obliquely compressed final chamber.

Globigerinoides extremus
Strongly obliquely compressed & flattened final chamber.

Globigerinoides altiaperturus
Large, arched primary aperture and almost equally large supplementary aperture opposite it.

Globigerinoides eoconglobatus
Like G. obliquus, but final chamber less laterally compressed.

Globigerinoides joli
Like G. neoparawoodi but with more lobate outline and a thick rim bordering the aperture.

Globigerinoides neoparawoodi
Subovate to subtriangular, moderately lobulate, 3½-4 globular chambers in final whorls; umbilicus open & wide; Primary aperture high circular  arch. One small supplementary sutural aperture on the spiral side (opposite the primary aperture).

bolli->kennetti lineage
Globigerinoides kennetti
Like Gs. bolli but only 3 to 3½ chambers in final whorl (vs. 4), less-embracing chambers, and more subquadrate outline

Globigerinoides bollii
Small, compact,  aperture almost circular. Supplementary sutural aperture on spiral side

Globigerinoides italicus
Primary aperture, an inverse drop-like and elongated arch, higher than it is wider

subquadratus-mitra lineage
Globigerinoides mitra
Large test with very high spire, and large, asymmetric primary aperture

Globigerinoides seigliei
Like G. ruber but somewhat aberrant primary aperture and large supplementary apertures

Globigerinoides subquadratus
Like G. ruber but subquadrate. Prominent supplementary apertures

Globigerinoides diminutus
Like G. subquadratus, but very small, compact test. Apertures almost circular, symmetrically above sutures.

Globigerinoides bulloideus
Like G. bulloides but with supplementary apertures on the spiral side

Globigerinoides sp.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species


Citation: Globigerinoides Cushman 1927, emend Spezzaferri et al. 2015
taxonomic rank: genus
Type species: Globigerina rubra d'Orbigny 1839
Taxonomic discussion:

The genus Globigerinoides was used by Kennett & Srinivasan (1983) and many other workers for all Neogene Globigerina-type species with supplementary apertures, but it was long suspected that this was a polyphyletic group. Spezzaferri et al. (2015) conclusively proved this polyphyly using both stratophenetic and molecular genetic data and so divided the species into two groups - Trilobatus and Globigerinoides, as used here. They have separate origins and different wall structures. [my summary - JRY 2018]

Cushman (1927) erected this genus and described it as similar to Globigerina but possessing numerous and large supplementary apertures on the spiral side of the last whorl only. Bolli (1957) informally included in the genus those species with supplementary apertures on the spiral side also in chambers from the inner whorls. Blow (1979) officially emended the description of Cushman (1927) and excluded from the genus all Paleocene species such as Globoconusa daubjergensis Brönnimann, all Eocene species with the exception of “Globigerinoideshigginsi Bolli [(now Guembelitrioides nuttalli (Hamilton)], and all Oligocene species. He considered as “Globigerinoides” only Neogene species with several spiral supplementary apertures in chambers prior to the last with the exception of the phylogenetically primitive “Globigerinoidesquadrilobatus primordius Blow and Banner, which possesses only one. Blow and Banner (1962) suggested that the first representative of the genus (“Globigerinoidesprimordius) originated from Globigerina praebulloides occlusa by developing supplementary apertures on the spiral side. “Globigerinoidesprimordius is now attributed to the genus Trilobatus (Spezzaferri and others, 2015) and the suggested phylogenetic link is no longer supported.  [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Globigerinoides” has been for a long time considered as polyphyletic. However, the re-investigation of the fossil record coupled with genetic studies has now solved the problem of the polyphyletism of the genus, which can now be considered as monophyletic (Spezzaferri and others, 2015). The bullate forms described as Globigerinanus Ouda (1978) and interpreted as evolving from the genus Globigerinoides in the Burdigalian resemble well known species of Globigerinoides (e.g., Globigerinoides ruber) displaying a bulla-like gametogenetic last chamber, smaller or larger than the previous one and therefore, the genus Globigerinanus is not retained here.  [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides, Globigerinanus, Globicuniculus, Alloglobigerinoides

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Globigerinidae): Wall spinose, usually with 3½-6 globular chambers in final whorl, trochospiral or planispiral
This taxon: Supplementary apertures, with ruber/sacculifer-type spinose wall texture

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Low to moderately high trochospiral consisting of 2½-3 whorls. The peripheral margin is rounded, the test outline varies from subcircular to slightly ovate or subtriangular to subrectangular and lobate with globular to ovate chambers, may become radially compressed and asymmetrical, three to four in the last whorl, increasing gradually in size as added. The primary aperture is umbilical and is generally set in a wide and open umbilical area. Supplementary apertures are present on the spiral side; they may be one or more and are placed at the intersection of the spiral sutures. Thin lips may be present on the primary and supplementary apertures. The last chamber may be smaller (kummerform) than the previous ones.  [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Wall type:
Cancellate, irregular honeycomb, with spines irregularly distributed. Gametogenetic calcification may obscure spines holes. It may be ruber- or ruber/sacculifer-type sensu Hemleben and Olsson (2006). Only the ruber/sacculifer-type wall is present in Oligocene and lower Miocene Globigerinoides. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Globigerinoides is typical and abundant at low and middle latitudes (e.g., Hemleben and others, 1989). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Phylogenetic relations
Globigerinoides evolved from Globoturborotalita woodi and diversified in lower Miocene Subzone M1a (e.g., Spezzaferri, 1994).  [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Globoturborotalita - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: .

See also: Trilobatus - sacculifer and several other species are now placed in this genus.;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: The genus first appears at the Oligocene-Miocene transition, and in particular at the base of Subzone M1a and is still present in the modern oceans. [Spezzaferri et al. 2015]
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Total of ranges of the species in this database
First occurrence (base): within M1a subzone (22.44-22.96Ma, base in Aquitanian stage). Data source: Total of ranges of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Spezzaferri et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.9 p.272


Blow, W. H. & Banner, F. T. (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In, Eames, F. E., Banner, F. T., Blow, W. H. & Clarke, W. J. (eds) Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 61-151. gs

Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

Bolli, H. M. (1957b). Planktonic foraminifera from the Oligocene-Miocene Cipero and Lengua formations of Trinidad, B.W.I. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr., Tappan, H., Beckmann, J. P., Bolli, H. M., Montanaro Gallitelli & E. Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin . 215: 97-123. gs

Cushman, J. A. (1927a). An outline of a re-classification of the Foraminifera. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research. 3: 1-105. gs O

Huang, T. (1986). Alloglobigerinoides, a new planktic foraminiferal genus. Petroleum Geology of Taiwan. 22: 93-102. gs


Globigerinoides compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 16-6-2024

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Comments (2)

joao villar de queiroz neto(France)

Hi, there is a typo on G diminutus, curcular instead of circular.

All the best and thanks for the top quality work.

Sincerely, Joao

Jeremy Young(UK)


Thank you for pointing that out, and I have corrected it now. It is also god to know you find the site useful, please do comment on other problems as you find them