Globigerinoides elongatus

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides -> Globigerinoides elongatus
Sister taxa: G. tenellus, G. elongatus, G. conglobatus, G. ruber ⟩⟨ G. obliquus, G. extremus, G. altiaperturus, G. eoconglobatus, G. joli, G. neoparawoodi ⟩⟨ G. kennetti, G. bollii, G. italicus ⟩⟨ G. mitra, G. seigliei, G. subquadratus, G. diminutus ⟩⟨ G. bulloideus, G. sp.


Citation: Globigerinoides elongatus (d'Orbigny, 1826)
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina elongata
Taxonomic discussion: Not usually distinguished from G. ruber in palaeontological studies (e.g. Aze et al. 2011) but now separated in modern fauna (eg SCOR WG138), following work of Aurahs et al. (2011) who showed that one of the most commonly recognised pseudo-cryptic genotypes within G. ruber, type IIa, was consistent with the species definition of Globigerinoides elongatus.

Catalog entries: Globigerina elongata

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Like Gs. ruber but chambers radially compressed

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.



Coiling direction (in extant population): mixed

Size: >250µm

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:N/A
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution:

In modern oceans an abundant, warm water, species [SCOR WG138]

Phylogenetic relations: Molecular Genotypes recognised (data from PFR2 database, June 2017. References: André et al. 2014; Aurahs et al. 2011).
NB These genotypes were previously classified as G. ruber IIa, but were reclassified as G. elongatus by  Aurahs et al. (2011), they also suggest it is most likely to have evolved from G. extremus.

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinoides conglobatus - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Morard et al. (2019) - based on mol gen data. NB Aurahs et al. (2011) suggested origin from G. extremus..
Likely descendants: Globigerinoides tenellus;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Rarely separated in the fossil record, but Aurahs et al. (2011) estimated a divergence age of 1.2-4.6Ma from molecular clock approach
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within Pliocene Epoch (2.59-5.33Ma, base in Zanclean stage). Data source: Perconig 1969, Aurahs et al. 2011

Plot of occurrence data:


André, A. et al. (2014). SSU rDNA Divergence in Planktonic Foraminifera: Molecular Taxonomy and Biogeographic Implications. PLoS One. 9: e104641-. gs V O

Aurahs, R., Treis, Y., Darling, K. & Kucera, M. (2011). A revised taxonomic and phylogenetic concept for the planktonic foraminifer species Globigerinoides ruber based on molecular and morphometric evidence. Marine Micropaleontology. 79: 1-14. gs

d'Orbigny, A. (1826). Tableau methodique de la Classe de Cephalopodes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris. 7: 245-314. gs V O

Morard, R. et al. (2019). Genetic and morphological divergence in the warm-water planktonic foraminifera genus Globigerinoides. PLoS One. 14(12): 1-30. gs V O


Globigerinoides elongatus compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 19-4-2021

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