pforams@mikrotax - Globigerinoides elongatus pforams@mikrotax - Globigerinoides elongatus

Globigerinoides elongatus

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides -> Globigerinoides elongatus
Sister taxa: G. tenellus, G. elongatus, G. conglobatus, G. ruber ⟩⟨ G. rublobatus ⟩⟨ G. obliquus, G. extremus, G. altiaperturus, G. eoconglobatus, G. joli, G. neoparawoodi ⟩⟨ G. kennetti, G. bollii, G. italicus ⟩⟨ G. mitra, G. seigliei, G. subquadratus, G. diminutus ⟩⟨ G. bulloideus, G. sp.


Citation: Globigerinoides elongatus (d'Orbigny, 1826)
taxonomic rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina elongata
Taxonomic discussion: Not usually distinguished from G. ruber in palaeontological studies (e.g. Aze et al. 2011, Lam & Leckie 2020) but now separated in modern fauna (e.g. Brummer & Kucera 2022), following work of Aurahs et al. (2011) who showed that one of the most commonly recognised pseudo-cryptic genotypes within G. ruber, type IIa, was consistent with the species definition of Globigerinoides elongatus.

Catalog entries: Globigerina elongata, Globigerina canariensis, Globigerina gomitulus, Globigerinoides elongata bikiniensis, Globigerinoides elongata cedrosensis, Globigerina cyclostoma, Globigerina dubiata

Type images:

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Globigerinoides): Supplementary apertures, with ruber/sacculifer-type spinose wall texture
This taxon: Like Gs. ruber but final chamber is asymmetrically flattened (compressed)

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.



Coiling direction (in extant population): mixed


Character matrix
test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:N/A
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4-4 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

In modern oceans an abundant, warm water, species [SCOR WG138]

Phylogenetic relations
Molecular Genotypes recognised (data from PFR2 database, June 2017. References: André et al. 2014; Aurahs et al. 2011).
NB These genotypes were previously classified as G. ruber IIa, but were reclassified as G. elongatus by  Aurahs et al. (2011), they also suggest it is most likely to have evolved from G. extremus.

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinoides conglobatus - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Morard et al. (2019) - based on mol gen data. NB Aurahs et al. (2011) suggested origin from G. extremus..
Likely descendants: Globigerinoides tenellus; plot with descendants

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Rarely separated in the fossil record, but Aurahs et al. (2011) estimated a divergence age of 1.2-4.6Ma from molecular clock approach
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within Pliocene Epoch (2.59-5.33Ma, base in Zanclean stage). Data source: Perconig 1969, Aurahs et al. 2011

Plot of occurrence data:


André, A. et al. (2014). SSU rDNA Divergence in Planktonic Foraminifera: Molecular Taxonomy and Biogeographic Implications. PLoS One. 9: e104641-. gs

Aurahs, R., Treis, Y., Darling, K. & Kucera, M. (2011). A revised taxonomic and phylogenetic concept for the planktonic foraminifer species Globigerinoides ruber based on molecular and morphometric evidence. Marine Micropaleontology. 79: 1-14. gs

Aze, T. et al. (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews. 86: 900-927. gs

Brummer, G-J. A. & Kucera, M. (2022). Taxonomic review of living planktonic foraminifera. Journal of Micropalaeontology. 41: 29-74. gs

d'Orbigny, A. (1826). Tableau methodique de la Classe de Cephalopodes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris. 7: 245-314. gs

Lam, A. & Leckie, R. M. (2020a). Late Neogene and Quaternary diversity and taxonomy of subtropical to temperate planktic foraminifera across the Kuroshio Current Extension, northwest Pacific Ocean. Micropaleontology. 66(3): 177-268. gs

Latas, M., Pearson, P. N., Poole, C. R., Fabbrini, A. & Wade, B. S (2023). Globigerinoides rublobatus – a new species of Pleistocene planktonic foraminifera . Journal of Micropalaeontology. 42: 57-81. gs O

McCulloch, I. A. (1977). Qualitative observations on Recent foraminiferal tests with emphasis on the eastern Pacific (3 vols). University of Southern California, Los Angeles. -. gs

Mistretta, E. (1962). Foraminiferi planctonici del Pliocene inferiore di Altavilla Milicia (Palermo, Sicilia),. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia. 68(1): 97-114. gs

Morard, R. et al. (2019a). Genetic and morphological divergence in the warm-water planktonic foraminifera genus Globigerinoides. PLoS One. 14(12): 1-30. gs

Schiebel, R. & Hemleben, C. (2017). Planktic Foraminifers in the Modern Ocean. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. 1-358. gs

Seguenza, G. (1880). Le foramazioni terziarie nella provincia di Reggio (Calabria),. Rendiconti Atti della Reale Accadamia dei Lincei. 1-466. gs O


Globigerinoides elongatus compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 22-7-2024

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