pforams@mikrotax - Globigerinoides tenellus pforams@mikrotax - Globigerinoides tenellus

Globigerinoides tenellus

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides -> Globigerinoides tenellus
Sister taxa: G. tenellus, G. elongatus, G. conglobatus, G. ruber ⟩⟨ G. rublobatus ⟩⟨ G. obliquus, G. extremus, G. altiaperturus, G. eoconglobatus, G. joli, G. neoparawoodi ⟩⟨ G. kennetti, G. bollii, G. italicus ⟩⟨ G. mitra, G. seigliei, G. subquadratus, G. diminutus ⟩⟨ G. bulloideus, G. sp.


Citation: Globigerinoides tenellus Parker, 1958
taxonomic rank: species
Basionym: Globigerinoides tenellus Parker, 1958
Taxonomic discussion: This species was decribed in Globigerionoides but has been placed in Globoturborotalita in most modern analyses, based on the inference that it most likely evolved from Globoturborotalita rubescens (e.g. Kennett & Srinivasan 1983; Aze et al. 2011, Schiebel & Hemleben 2017). However, Morard et al. (2019) used molecular genetics and ontogenetic reconstructions to show that the species nested inside the clade of extant Globigerinoides species and  that it was closely related to G. elongatus and G. conglobatus. Based on this they reccomended transfering it back into Globigerinoides.

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides tenella

Type images:

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Globigerinoides): Supplementary apertures, with ruber/sacculifer-type spinose wall texture
This taxon: Like G. rubescens but with a small, supplementary aperture.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Test small, low trochospire , chambers spherical, four in the final whorl, rapidly increasing in size as added; sutures cllrved and depressed; surface distinctly cancellate with pores set in polygonal pore pits; primary aperture umbilical large, almost circular in outline, with a distinct rim; single small, supplementary aperture on spiral side at intersection of spiral and intercameral sutures. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Wall type:
Spinose; Cancellate [Aze 2011]


Character matrix
test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Concavo-convexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4-4 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Tropical to temperate. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983] Low latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

In modern oceans a common, warm water, species [SCOR WG138]

Map of distribution from ForCenS database

Isotope paleobiology
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 2 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, without symbionts; based on comparison with other species of the genus.

Phylogenetic relations
Gs. tenellus is similar to Globigerina (Zeaglobigerina) rubescens in all respects except for the development of a small, supplementary aperture. This species evolved from Gg. (Zg.) rubescens in the Late Pliocene. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinoides elongatus - at confidence level 5 (out of 5). Data source: Morard et al. (2019) - based on mol gen data. NB Kennett & Srinivasan 1983 had suggested origin from G. rubescens.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within N21 zone (1.93-3.10Ma, base in Piacenzian stage). Data source: Chaisson & Pearson (1997)

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.80 (as Globigerinoides tenellus)


Aze, T. et al. (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews. 86: 900-927. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Loeblich, A. & Tappan, H. (1994). Foraminifera of the Sahul shelf and Timor Sea. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 31: 1-661. gs O

Morard, R. et al. (2019a). Genetic and morphological divergence in the warm-water planktonic foraminifera genus Globigerinoides. PLoS One. 14(12): 1-30. gs

Parker, F. L. (1958). Eastern Mediterranean foraminifera. Reports of the Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition, 1947-1948. 8(4): 217-283. gs

Schiebel, R. & Hemleben, C. (2017). Planktic Foraminifers in the Modern Ocean. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. 1-358. gs

Siccha, M. & Kucera, M. (2017). ForCenS, a curated database of planktonic foraminifera census counts in marine surface sediment samples. Scientific Data. 4(1): 1-12. gs


Globigerinoides tenellus compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 16-6-2024

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Comments (3)


hello! Is the name Globoturborotalita tenella still accepted? according to other sources it is now called Globigerinoides tenellus.

Jeremy Young(UK)

Both names are valid under nomenclatural rules. Most workers use Globoturborotalita tenella (e.g Aze et al. 2011, Darling & Wade 2008, Schiebel & Hemleben 2017) and there is geological evidence for tenella evolving from rubescens (e.g Kennett & Srinivasan 1983), and they are very mlar morphologically. However, the SCOR working group (Brummer & Kucera 2014, 2015), do use Globigerinoides tenellus, presumably because it has a supplementary aperture. I don't think there is molecular genetic data available, yet, for the species.



thank you for your reply