pforams@mikrotax - Globoconella inflata pforams@mikrotax - Globoconella inflata

Globoconella inflata

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globorotaliidae -> Globoconella -> Globoconella inflata
Sister taxa: G. triangula, G. inflata, G. puncticulata, G. terminalis, G. pliozea, G. conomiozea, G. miotumida, G. miozea, G. panda, G. sp.


Citation: Globoconella inflata (d’Orbigny, 1839)
taxonomic rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina inflata d’Orbigny, 1839
Taxonomic discussion: We follow Lam & Leckie (2020) in separating G. triangula as a discrete species, rather than a synonym or sub-species of G. inflata. [editor's comment - JRY 2022]

Brummer & Kucera (2022) argue that Neoacarinina Thompson 1973 is likely to be a senior synonym of Globoconella, and so nomenclatural revision may be needed. Consequently they retain G. inflata in Globorotalia.

Catalog entries: Globigerina inflata, Globorotalia oscitans, Globorotalia inflata praeinflata, Globigerina nipponica

Type images:

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Globoconella): Globorotaliids having a high-arched aperture
This taxon: Like Gr. (G.) puncticulata but <4 chambers in final whorl, greater test inflation, a broadly rounded periphery, and a larger, high-arched, aperture.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Test low trochospiral, 3 to 3½ subglobular chambers in the final whorl, periphery broadly rounded, chambers more inflated on umbilical side than on spiral side, increasing uniformly in size as added; spiral sutures curved, depressed, on umbilical side almost radial, depressed; surface covered with low, rounded tubercles and smooth, thick cortex as in Pulleniatina; umbilicus narrow; aperture wide, high arch, interiomarginal, umbilical-extraumbilical with an indistinct rim. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Wall type:
Non-spinose; Cancellate [Aze 2011]


Character matrix
test outline:Subquadratechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Planoconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Crescenticcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Subtriangularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Flushumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Smoothshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Weakly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3-3.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Sub-antarctic to warm subtropical areas. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983] Low to high latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

In modern oceans an abundant, temperate water, species [SCOR WG138]

Map of distribution from ForCenS database

Isotope paleobiology
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light δ13C and relatively heavy δ18O Cited sources (Aze et al. 2011 appendix S3): Vergnaud-Grazzini (1976)

Phylogenetic relations
Gr. (G.) inflata is distinguished from Gr. (G.) puncticulata by usually having 3 to 3½ chambers in the final whorl, greater test inflation, a broadly rounded periphery, and a large, high-arched aperture.
Gr. (G.) puncticulata evolved during the Late Pliocene into Gr. (G.) inflata by a reduction in the number of chambers in the final whorl and an increase in degree of inflation of the chambers (Kennett and Vella, 1975; Malmgren and Kennett, 1981). Gr. (G.) inflata is the end member of the continuously evolving lineage of Globoconella, and its evolutionary first appearance marks a valuable datum.
Globorotalia triangula Theyer and Globorotalia oscitans Todd are closely related forms. Maiya et al. (1976), from studies in the Japanese section, postulated an alternate phylogeny for Gr. (G.) inflata, from Gr. adamantea to Gr. orientalis to Gr. inflata praeinflata. Because of our clear and measured observations of gradation from Gr. puncticulata to Gr. inflata (see Malmgren and Kennett, 1981), the meaning of the lineage devised by Maiya et al. (1976) is unclear. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Molecular Genotypes recognised (data from PFR2 database, June 2017. References: Morard et al. 2011; Morard et al. 2013; Ujiié & Lipps 2009).

Most likely ancestor: Globoconella puncticulata - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, fig. 13, Wei 1994, fig.1.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within PL5 [Atl.] zone (2.39-3.13Ma, base in Piacenzian stage). Data source: Wei 1994 (quoted age converted to modern zone)

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.118


Bandy, O. L. (1975). Messinian evaporite deposition and the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, Pasquasia-Capodarso Sections, Sicily. In, Saito, T. & Burckle, L. H. (eds) Late Neogene Epoch Boundaries. American Museum Natural History Micropaleontology Press, New York 49-63. gs

Banner, F. T. & Blow, W. H. (1967). The origin, evolution and taxonomy of the foraminiferal genus Pulleniatina Cushman, 1927. Micropaleontology. 13(2): 133-162. gs

Brummer, G-J. A. & Kucera, M. (2022). Taxonomic review of living planktonic foraminifera. Journal of Micropalaeontology. 41: 29-74. gs

d'Orbigny, A. (1839b). Foraminifères des Iles Canaries. In, Barker-Webb, P. & Berthelot, S. (eds) Histoire naturelle des Iles Canaries. 120-146. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Vella, P. (1975). Late Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and Paleoceanography at DSDP site 284 in the cool subtropical South Pacific. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 29: 769-799. gs

Lam, A. & Leckie, R. M. (2020a). Late Neogene and Quaternary diversity and taxonomy of subtropical to temperate planktic foraminifera across the Kuroshio Current Extension, northwest Pacific Ocean. Micropaleontology. 66(3): 177-268. gs

Maiya, S., Saito, T. & Sato, T. (1976). Late Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of northwest Pacific sedimentary sequences. In, Takayanagi, Y. & Saito, T. (eds) Progress in Micropaleontology. Micropaleontology Press, New York 395-422. gs

Malmgren, B. A. & Kennett, J. P. (1981). Phyletic gradualism in a Late Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal lineage; DSDP site 284, southwest Pacific. Paleobiology. 7(2): 230-240. gs

Morard, R., Quillévéré, F., Douady, C. J., de Vargas, C., de Garidel-Thoron, T. & Escarguel, G. (2011). Worldwide genotyping in the planktonic foraminifer Globoconella inflata: Implications for life history and paleoceanography. PLoS One. 6: e26665-. gs

Morard, R., Quillévéré, F., Escarguel, G. & Garidel-thoron, T. D. (2013). Ecological modeling of the temperature dependence of cryptic species of planktonic foraminifera in the Southern Hemisphere. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 391: 13-33. gs

Schiebel, R. & Hemleben, C. (2017). Planktic Foraminifers in the Modern Ocean. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. 1-358. gs

Siccha, M. & Kucera, M. (2017). ForCenS, a curated database of planktonic foraminifera census counts in marine surface sediment samples. Scientific Data. 4(1): 1-12. gs

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J. H. (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39: 145-154. gs

Vergnaud-Grazzini, C. (1976). Non-equilibrium isotopic compositions of shells of planktonic foraminifera in the Mediterranean Sea. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 20: 263-276. gs

Wei, K. -Y. (1994b). Stratophenetic tracing of phylogeny using SIMCA pattern recognition technique: a case study of the late Neogene planktic foraminifera Globoconella clade. Paleobiology. 20(1): 52-65. gs


Globoconella inflata compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 15-6-2024

Taxon Search:
Advanced Search

Short stable page link: Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Add Comment

* Required information
Captcha Image
Powered by Commentics


No comments yet. Be the first!