Trilobatus sacculifer

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Trilobatus -> Trilobatus sacculifer
Sister taxa: T. sacculifer, T. quadrilobatus, T. immaturus, T. trilobus ⟩⟨ T. bisphericus, T. sicanus ⟩⟨ T. altospiralis, T. praeimmaturus, T. primordius, T. subsacculifer, T. sp.


Citation: Trilobatus sacculifer (Brady, 1877)
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina sacculifera
Variants: Molecular genetic data indicates that these morphotypes are conspecific (André et al. 2013)
Taxonomic discussion:

In Kennett & Srinivasan (1983) Gs. trilobus, Gs. immaturus and Gs. quadrilobatus were primarily distinguished from Gs. sacculifer by absence of the elongate sack-like final chamber. Gs. quadrilobatus was distinguished from Gs. immaturus by having a high aperture and a lower rate of chamber expansion. Gs. trilobus has only 3 chambers in the final whorl. These four morphotypes all occur from the Early Miocene to the present day (e.g. Kennett & Srinivasan 1983) and they have been shown to be conspecific in the modern plankton (André et al. 2013). They are, however, used by palaeontologists including Spezzaferri et al. (2018) since they have different straigraphic ranges. [editor's comment - JRY 2018]

Poole & Wade (2019) provide extensive documentation of morphological vararion within this group.

Catalog entries: Globigerina sacculifera, Globigerinoides suleki

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Low trochospiral, chambers spherical except final one which is sack-like

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Spinose; Cancellate [Aze 2011]

Morphology: Test low trochospiral, chambers spherical except the final one, which is [often] elongate, sack like; three and a half to four in the final whorl, increasing slowly in size as added. The last chamber may be rather small, or it may be elongate and lobulate. Sutures on both sides slightly curved and depressed; surface with regular subhexagonal pore pits; umbilicus narrow, primary aperture interio-marginal, umbilical, a distinct arch bordered by a rim; prominent supplementary apertures on spiral side.

Size: >250µm

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Low-moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Narrowly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.5-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Low latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

In modern oceans an abundant, warm water, species [SCOR WG138]

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy ∂13C and relatively light ∂18O Cited sources (Aze et al. 2011 appendix S3): Keller (1985); D. R. M. Stewart unpublished data

Phylogenetic relations: Molecular Genotypes recognised (data from PFR2 database, June 2017. References: André et al. 2013 ; Darling et al. 1997; Ujiié & Lipps 2009; Seears et al. 2012). The species shows remarkably low genetic differentiation in comparison to most other common planktonic foraminifera and what differentiation there is shows no relation to test morphology (André et al. 2013).

Most likely ancestor: Trilobatus subsacculifer - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Spezzaferri et al. 2018.
Likely descendants: Globigerinoidesella fistulosa;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within N6 zone (17.54-17.59Ma, base in Burdigalian stage). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983 - this is range excluding triloba as a synonym

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.66


André, A., Weiner, A., Quillévéré, F., Aurhas, R., Morard, R. & Douady, C. (2013). The cryptic and the apparent reversed: lack of genetic differentiation within the morphologically diverse plexus of the planktonic fora-minifer Globigerinoides sacculifer. Paleobiology. 39: 21-39. gs

Aze, T. et al. (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews. 86: 900-927. gs

Bermudez, P. J. (1961). Contribucion al estudio de las Globigerinidea de la region Caribe-Antillana (Paleoceno-Reciente). Editorial Sucre, Caracas. 1119-1393. gs

Brady, H. B. (1877). Supplementary note on the foraminifera of the Chalk (?) of the New Britain group. Geological Magazine. 4(12): 534-536. gs

d'Orbigny, A. (1846). Foraminiferes fossiles du bassin tertiaire de Vienne (Austriche). Gide et Companie, Paris. 1-312. gs

Darling, K. F., Wade, C. M., Kroon, D. & Brown, A. J. L. (1997). Planktic foraminiferal molecular evolution and their polyphyletic origins from benthic taxa. Marine Micropaleontology. 30: 251-266. gs

Keller, G. (1985). Depth stratification of planktonic foraminifers in the Miocene Ocean. In, Kennett, J. P. (ed.) The Miocene Ocean: Paleoceanography and Biogeography. GSA Memoir. 163: 1-337. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Lam, A. & Leckie, R. M. (2020). Late Neogene and Quaternary diversity and taxonomy of subtropical to temperate planktic foraminifera across the Kuroshio Current Extension, northwest Pacific Ocean. Micropaleontology. 66(3): 177-268. gs

LeRoy, L. W. (1939). Some small foraminifera ostracoda and otoliths from the Neogene (Miocene) of the Rokan-Tapanoeli area, central Sumatra,. Natuurk. Tijdschr. Nederl.-Indie. 99(6): 215-296. gs

Loeblich, A. & Tappan, H. (1994). Foraminifera of the Sahul shelf and Timor Sea. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 31: 1-661. gs V O

Norris, R. D. (1998). Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy: Eastern Equatorial Atlantic. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 159: 445-479. gs V O

Poole, C. R. & Wade, B. S. (2019). Systematic taxonomy of the Trilobatus sacculifer plexus and descendant Globigerinoidesella fistulosa (planktonic foraminifera). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 1-42. gs

Postuma, J. A. (1971). Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Elsevier for Shell Group, The Hague. 1-406. gs

Seears, H. A., Darling, K. F. & Wade, C. M. (2012). Ecological partitioning and diversity in tropical planktonic foraminifera. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12(54): 1-15. gs V O

Spezzaferri, S. et al. (2015). Fossil and genetic evidence for the polyphyletic nature of the planktonic foraminifera "Globigerinoides", and description of the new genus Trilobatus. PLoS One. 1-20. gs V O

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J. H. (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39: 145-154. gs


Trilobatus sacculifer compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 15-5-2021

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