Catalog - Globigerina rubra Catalog - Globigerina rubra

CATALOG OF ORIGINAL DESCRIPTIONS: Globigerina rubra d'Orbigny 1839

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Globigerina rubra

Citation: Globigerina rubra d'Orbigny 1839
taxonomic rank: species
Type sample (& lithostrat): Marine sands. Rather common.
Type age (chronostrat): Recent.
Type locality: Not designated. Localities given: Cuba, Jamaica, Guadeloupe, and Martinique.
Type repository: Paris, MNHN, Lab de PalŽontologie; Lectotype designated by Banner & Blow 1960

Current identification/main database link: Globigerinoides ruber subsp. ruber d'Orbigny 1839

Original Description

"Globigerina. Testa elevata, rugosa, rubra; spira convexa, loculis tribus, sphaericis; aperturis plurimis.
 Coquille élevée, rugueuse ou même comme finement hérissée et perforée. Spire saillante, composée d 'un tour et demi, ou, dans l'âge adulte, de cinq loges seulement. Loges sphériques, très distinctes, au nombre de trois au dernier tour. Ouvertures. Indépendamment de l'ouverture ordinaire, placée au centre de l' ombilic, il y en a deux autres en dessus de la dernière loge, et une sur l'avant-dernière; néanmoins ce nombre paraît varier suivant les individus et n'être pas toujours le même. Couleurs. Les dernières loges sont jaunes ou jaunes-rougeâtres; elles deviennent de plus en plus teintées de rouge, à mesure qu'elles approchent du sommet de la spire, où elles sont d 'un rouge jaunâtre pâle.

Description of lectotype: The fairly large test consists of slightly more than two whorls of strongly inflated chambers arranged 3 to a whorl in a moderately high trochospire. The equatorial profile is subovate, but the equatorial periphery is strong lobulate. The dorsal surface is distinctly convex and the earlier whorls are clearly visible. The chambers are subglobular to sub-ovoid and are broadly reniform in dorsal aspect, well separated one from the other and are but little embracing. The sutures are distinctly and broadly depressed both dorsally and ventrally; they are strongly curved dorsally, but also radial ventrally. The apertures are multiple. primary aperture is interiomarginal umbilical, a moderately high, semicircular arch bordered by a distinct, uniformly narrow, I rim; the primary aperture is placed and shaped symmetrically with respect to the intercameral suture between the penultimate and antepenultimate chambers. The supplementary apertures are dorsal in position and are situated at the basal suture of each chamber at its junction with the adjacent intercameral suture of the preceding whorl. One or two such supplementary apertures are present in each chamber of the last whorl. The supplementary apertures are high, semicircular arches, with very thin rims. The umbilicus is small, almost closed and very shallow. The waH is calcareous, apparently radial in structure, uniformly and fairly finely perforate and moderately thin. The surface of the test is slightly rough, but little trace of any original hispidity exists in the lectotype. .The earlier part of the test is red coloured, not with the red tint of ferric compounds, but with a deeper and more crimson hue, probably of an organic origin. [Banner & Blow 1960]

Diamètre ½ millim.

Maximum diameter of lectotype: 0.62 mm. [Banner & Blow 1960]

Extra details from original publication

Par les trois loges qui composent son dernier tour de spire, cette espèce se rapproche évidemment de nos Globigerina trilocularis, G. globularis, et G. siphonifera; mais elle s'en distingue par sa forme plus élevée, par sa couleur rouge, puis par les ouvertures nombreuses de sa demière et de son avant-demière loge."

Taxonomic remarks:
D'Orbigny first described Globigerina rubra in 1839, 'basing his description on specimens obtained from recent marine sands from Cuba, Jamaica, Guadaloupe and Martinique.

In the A. d'Orbigny collections in Paris, there exists a mounted tube which originally contained eight specimens; the front of the mount of this tube is inscribed ""Globigerina rubra d'Orbigny, Cuba,"" probably in Terquem's handwriting, with an additional note in another handwriting reading ""Type !sole."" On the reverse of the tube mount is affixed d'Orbigny's original label which reads as follows: IV 12 14 Globigerina rubra.

One specimen is obviously missing from the original tube and we believe that this specimen is now present in a modern single-celled slide which is also present in the A. d'Orbigny collection. Following discussions with the present authorities of the Museum National de I'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, we presume that the isolation of the specimen was made by Dr. A. R. Loeblich during his visit to Europe in the years 19531954. We mentioned this to Dr. Loeblich in a letter written to hini, mainly concerning G. bulloides, but we nave received no reply appertaining to his work in Europe. As it is absolutely essential to establish whether or not the specimen of G. rubra isolated into the new modern single-celled slide actually came from, and was a part of, the original syntypic series, it is necessary to be reasonably sure who isolated the specimen and when it was done. First of all, the inscription as ' to locality and name on the new slide agrees with that written on the original tube mount. Secondly, the handwriting of the words ""Type !sole"" on the original tube mount agrees with the handwriting on the new slide. Unfortunately, none of the present authorities in Paris can vouch that the handwriting is that of Dr. Loeblich but we have seen slides used by Dr. Loeblich for the isolation of types in the British Museum which are not only of the same modern type as that containing the isolated specimen of G. rubra in Paris but are also inscribed in a handwriting which is known to be that of Dr. Loeblich and vouched for by Miss G. Underwood (British Museum). The handwriting seen on these slides agrees well with that under discussion and we are now confident that Dr. Loeblich carried out the isolation of the specimen and that it was taken from the original tube mount. Consequently, we believe the isolated specimen to be syntypic. Furthermore, in view of the considerable lapse of time following Dr. Loeblich's visit to Europe we feel justified (especially considering the great importance of this species) in proceeding to describe this specimen as lectotype of Globigerina rubra d'Orbigny 1839, (pl. 3, figs. 8a-b).

The specimen here designated lectotype was by far the best preserved of all the remaining syntypes and shows all the morphological characters of the species to the best advantage; this is an additional reason for establishing the validity of the specimen in question.

No attempt here is made to give a complete list of synonymous references but a reference to the work of Bolli (1957) has been included so as to demonstrate the stratigraphic range of the species (see Remarks below) . Globigerina rubra d'Orbigny 1839 was designated the type species of the new genus Globigerinoides Cushman 1927 by Cushman, 1927. Since this designation, the genus Globigerinoides was restricted by Bolli, Loeblich and Tappan (1957) in order to separate and clearly distinguish forms which are now referred to the genera Porticulasphaera and Globigerapsis. Banner and Blow (1959) further discussed these genera. [Banner & Blow 1960]

Remarks: In life, G. rubra possesses abundant, uniformly distributed, fine spines (see Brady, 1884, pl. 79, ijg. 16). D'Orbigny's name "" rubra"" was clearly intended to refer to the characteristic red colouration which is possessed by living specimens of this species, and which often seems to persist even in specimens from sub-recent deposits. However, a red-colouration is not only confined to G. rubra, but has been observed by us (also recorded by Brady, 1884, et. al. for other forms, e. g., Rotalia rosea d'Orbigny 1826) on other planktonic and benthonic Foraminifera from the recent seas. The red colouration is quite distinct from that due to secondary staining by iron oxides.

Globigerina rubra d'Orbigny shows a considerable range of variation both in the separation of the later chambers and in the height of the spire (compare Ovey, in Wiseman and Ovey, 1950, pl. 3, figs. 12a-b, and Bradshaw, 1959, pl. 7, figs. 12, 13). However, the very high spired forms figured by Brady (1884, pl. 79, figs. 13, 14, 15) and by Cushman (""Foraminifera, their classification and economic use,"" 1940 to 1955 editions, Key plate 34, figures 8a-b) are believed by us to be referable to Globigerina pyramidalis (Van den Broeck) (= Globigerina bulloides var. rubra subvar. pyramidalis Van den Broeck 1876) because this form is much more tightly coiled and possesses more slowly enlarging chambers, with smaller but more numerous dorsal sutural supplementary apertures. The stratigraphic occurrence of G. pyramidalis is not fully known but we have observed it only in collections from the recent seas and know of no fossil records. On the other hand, G. rubra is known to have existed from Miocene times.

In 1954, Bronnimann (in Bronnimann and Todd, 1954, p. 680, pl. 1, figs. 5, 8a-c) erected the name Globigerinoides subquadratus for forms from the ""Upper Oligocene"" (here believed to be Aquitanian) of Saipan and from the Middle Cipero formation of Trinidad (here believed to be also Aquitanian). The holotype is not well preserved but forms sent by one of us to Miss R. Todd in 1955, from the Globigerinatella insueta Zone, Pozon formation, eastern Falcon, Venezuela, were found by her to be conspecific with Globigerinoides sub quadratus. These forms differed from the typical G. ruber by being more tightly coiled, more quadrate in outline, and in possessing more embracing chambers with a thicker and more coarsely punctate wall. Also, the apertures of these forms seem to be smaller than in recent G. ruber. Although Bolli (1957, p. 113) placed G. subquadratus in full synonymy with Globigerinoides ruber we consider them to be subspecifically distinct and that G. subquadratus is an earlier and probably ancestral form. Bolli (1957, pl. 25, fig. 12) illustrated a form from the "" Globorotalia fohsi robusta"" Zone of the Cipero formation (considered synonymous with the true Globigerinoides ruber. Bolli (loc. cit., pl. 25, fig. 13) also illustrated a form from the Globigerinatella insueta Zone, Cipero formation, Trinidad (here believed to be Upper Aquitanian) under the name Globigerinoides ruber, but we consider this to be referable to G. ruber subquadratus (Bronnimann). The evolution from ""subquadratus"" to "" ruber"" sensu stricto appears to occur in the Burdigalian. Accordingly we consider the range of G. ruber subquadratus to be Middle Aquitanian to Burdigalian, and that of G. ruber ruber to be Burdigalian to Recent.

The forms described by Brady (1884, pl. 81, figs. 4, 5, here re-illustrated, pl. 3, figs. 7a-b) as Globigerina helicina d'Orbigny are probably conspecific with that illustrated by Soldani (1791, pl. 130, fig. qq) and G. rubra d'Orbigny 1839. However, as discussed above, they are not conspecific with the lectotype of G. helicina d'Orbigny 1826 (see p. 13, pl. 2, figs. 5a-c).

Globigerina elongata d'Orbigny 1826 may be related to G. rubra, but it is considered to be specifically distinct because of the thicker, more coarsely perforate and cancellate wall, the more tightly coiled, less inflated, chambers, the rounder, more laterally restricted primary aperture and the smaller supplementary apertures in the former species. It is possible that G. elongata, which does not seem to appear before the Pliocene, may have descended from G. rubra, or it may be a completely independent near-pseudomorph with a separate ancestry.

Globigerina cyclostoma Galloway and Wissler 1927 may be related to G. rubra but a re-examination of the types is necessary, in light of the above comments, before its position can be adequately discussed. Hofker (1959, pp. 1-9) proposed the name Globigerina rubra foraminata for specimens of G. rubra which possess ""sutural openings."" Although he did not further describe or illustrate the form, it appears that his newly proposed subspecific taxon is fully synonymous with G. rubra sensu stricto. As our writing above demonstrates, we are not in agreement with either Hofker's taxonomic system or his views on the evolution of this form. [Banner & Blow 1960]



Banner, F. T. & Blow, W. H. (1960a). Some primary types of species belonging to the superfamily Globigerinaceae. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research. 11: 1-41. gs O

d'Orbigny, A. (1839a). Foraminiferes. In, de la Sagra, R. (ed.) Histoire physique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba. A. Bertrand, Paris, France 1-224. gs


Globigerina rubra compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 13-4-2024

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