Acarinina echinata

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Truncorotaloididae -> Acarinina -> Acarinina echinata
Sister taxa: A. medizzai, A. collactea, A. pentacamerata, A. aspensis, A. interposita, A. echinata, A. pseudosubsphaerica, A. alticonica, A. soldadoensis, A. cuneicamerata, A. angulosa, A. africana, A. sibaiyaensis, A. esnehensis, A. mckannai, A. subsphaerica ⟩⟨ A. bullbrooki, A. punctocarinata, A. boudreauxi, A. rohri, A. topilensis> >>


Citation: Acarinina echinata (Bolli 1957)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Catapsydrax echinata
Taxonomic discussion: Bolli (1957b) originally placed echinata in Catapsydrax because of the presence of an umbilical bulla. However, the muricate wall texture of this species is distinctly different from the cancellate spinose wall texture of the type species of Catapsydrax (Globigerina dissimilis Cushman and Bermúdez, 1937). Forms with sutural bullae (Pl.9.10, Figs. 19-22) are included in this species because of their distinctly muricate test, and compact coiling. Further investigation may reveal that these forms should be differentiated from A. echinata s.s. [Berggren et al. 2006]

Specimens identified by Blow (1979) as Globigerinita echinata echinata and Globigerinita echinata africana have cancellate wall textures and are therefore unrelated to Acarinina echinata. Huber (1991, p. 439, pl. 5, fig. 17) recorded a mid-Oligocene bullate, globular, cancellate, spinose form similar to the “spinose variant” of (the lower Miocene) “Globoquadrina dehiscens” recorded by Berggren and others (1983; pl. 1, figs. 5-10) from the lower Miocene of DSDP Site 516 on the Rio Grande Rise, South Atlantic Ocean. We view these forms as unrelated to Acarinina echinata. [Berggren et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Catapsydrax echinatus

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Test compact coiling; muricate surface texture; final chamber kummerform or bullate and/or with sutural bullae.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Moderately to coarsely muricate, normal perforate, nonspinose. [Wade & Kucenjak 2018]

Morphology: Overall outline circular to subcircular. “Test compact, biconvex, peripheral outline weakly to moderately lobate, axial periphery rounded, more rarely becoming slightly subangular; chambers globular, 11-13 in adult tests increasing rapidly in size until ultimate chamber, which is usually kummerform and often connected to a variably shaped bulla that often covers the umbilicus and part or most of the umbilical sutures, 3½-4 chambers in the final whorl; umbilical sutures radial, weakly to moderately depressed, spiral sutures radial, weakly depressed to indistinct; aperture variable in size, shape, position and number depending on the characteristics of the bullate final chamber, usually a single low arched opening directed towards the umbilicus and surrounded by a narrow lip, more rarely two or three small, low arched openings directed along umbilical sutures” (Berggren and others, 2006:284). [Wade & Kucenjak 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.30 mm, thickness 0.25 mm. [Wade & Kucenjak 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Bulla
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Coarsely muricateshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Weakly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.5-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Rare, but globally distributed in high and low latitudes. We have recorded Oligocene occurrences from the Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Paratethys, and Kerguelen Plateau. [Wade & Kucenjak 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: No data available. [Wade & Kucenjak 2018]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy δ13C and relatively light δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): this study - i.e. inferred from related species.

Phylogenetic relations: Berggren and others (2006) suggested that Acarinina echinata may have evolved from Acarinina pseudosubsphaerica during the middle Eocene. There are no known descendants. [Wade & Kucenjak 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Acarinina pseudosubsphaerica - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Berggren et al. (2006) fig9.2.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: The range of Acarinina echinata is poorly constrained. It was described from Zone E10 (Bolli, 1957), our highest recorded specimens are from Zone O3/O4. [Wade & Kucenjak 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within O4 zone (28.09-29.18Ma, top in Rupelian stage). Data source: Wade & Kucenjak 2018
First occurrence (base): in lower part of E10 zone (30% up, 42.8Ma, in Lutetian stage). Data source: Berggren et al. 2006

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Wade & Kucenjak 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.13 p.395; Berggren et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 9, p. 284


Berggren, W. A., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Wade, B. S. (2006b). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Acarinina. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 9): 257-326. gs V O

Bermudez, P. J. (1937). Nuevas especies de Foraminiferos del Eoceno de Cuba. Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural. 11: +143-+. gs V O

Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

Bolli, H. M. (1957a). Planktonic foraminifera from the Eocene Navet and San Fernando formations of Trinidad. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr., Tappan, H., Beckmann, J. P., Bolli, H. M., Montanaro Gallitelli, E. & Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 155-172. gs V O

Grimm, K. I., Köthe, A. & Grimm, M. C. (2005). Sedimentologie und biostratigraphie im Rupelium der Ziegeleigrube Jungk, Wöllstein (Mainzer Becken). Senckenbergiana Lethaea. 85: 231-259. gs

Huber, B. T. (1991c). Paleogene and Early Neogene Planktonic Foraminifer Biostratigraphy of Sites 738 and 744, Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Indian Ocean). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 119: 427-449. gs V O

Jenkins, D. G. (1971). New Zealand Cenozoic Planktonic Foraminifera. New Zealand Geological Survey, Paleontological Bulletin. 42: 1-278. gs

Saito, T. (1962a). Eocene planktonic foraminifera from Hahajima (Hillsborough Island). Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, New Series. 45: 209-225. gs V O

Wade, B. S. & Hernitz Kucenjak, M. (2018). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Acarinina. In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 13): 393-402. gs V O

Wade, B. S. (2004). Planktonic Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and mechanisms in the extinction of Morozovella in the Late Middle Eocene. Marine Micropaleontology. 51: 23-38. gs


Acarinina echinata compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 22-4-2021

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