pforams@mikrotax - Candeinidae


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Candeinidae
Sister taxa: Globigerinidae, Globorotaliidae, Hantkeninidae, Truncorotaloididae, Globanomalinidae ⟩⟨ Hastigerinidae ⟩⟨ Globigerinitidae, Candeinidae ⟩⟨ Guembelitrioidea, Benthic origins, hidden
Daughter taxa (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)Granddaughter taxa
Sutural apertures:
C. nitida
C. sp.


Citation: Candeinidae Cushman 1927
Rank: family
Type species: Candeina nitida

Taxonomic discussion:
Pearson et al. (2018, p.431) exclude Candeina from the Globigerinitidae: " The modern species Candeina nitida is genetically close to Globigerinita (Ujiié and Lipps, 2009) and a close relationship has also been suggested from the fossil record (Blow 1969, 1979). However, our own observations (unpublished) indicate that Candeina has a very different wall texture. Further detailed investigation of both the genetics and morphology may determine whether Candeina should be included in the Globigerinitoidea." If Candeina was included with the other micropeforates then the family Candeinidae would have priority."

Catalog entries: Candeininae

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (pf_cenozoic): This is a polyphyletic gruoping including all Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera
This taxon: Microperforate with sutural apertures (and possibly a separate evolutionary origin)

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinitidae - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Candeina is thought to have evolved from Globigerinita (Hofker 1954, Parker 1962), although this s questioned by Pearson et al. (2018).

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): in lower part of Messinian Stage (34% up, 6.6Ma, in Messinian stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:


Cushman, J. A. (1927a). An outline of a re-classification of the Foraminifera. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research. 3: 1-105. gs V O

Parker, F. L. (1962). Planktonic foraminiferal species in Pacific sediments. Micropaleontology. 8(2): 219-254. gs

Pearson, P. N., Wade, B. S. & Huber, B. T. (2018c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Globigerinitidae (Dipsidripella, Globigerinita, and Tenuitella). In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 16): 429-458. gs V O

Missing or ambiguous references: Hofker 1954;


Candeinidae compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 7-12-2021

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