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Current identification/main database link: Trilobatus quadrilobatus (d’Orbigny, 1846)
G. testa ovato-convexa, gibbosa, punctata, subtus umbilicata, loculis quatuor sphaericis, subaequalibus, ultimo sphaerico.
Cette singulière coquille se compose de quatre loges sphériques presque égales en grosseur, dont la première est très saillante en dessus, et la dernière très saillante en dessous, sans former de spire régulière.
Diese sonderbare Schale ist zusammengesetzt aus vier spherischen, in Groesse fast gleichen Kammern, von denen die erste nach oben sehr vorspringend, und ebenso die letzte nach unten sehr vorspringend ist, ohne eine regelmaessige Spindel zu bilden.
Description of lectotype: The fairly large test cons;sts of about nine chambers arranged in a low, loose trochospire of about two whorls, each whorl, following the proloculum, consisting of about four chambers. The chambers are rapidly and uniformly enlarging, much inflated and little embracing. The equatorial profile is ovoid and the test has a strongly lobulate equatorial periphery. The axial profile is ovate and the axial periphery is smoothly rounded. The chambers are sub-globular and the intercameral sutures become increasingly deeply depressed during ontogeny. The spiral suture is initially slightly depressed becoming deeply depressed and incised in the last whorl. The umbilicus is small, almost closed, and is shallow. The apertures are multiple; the primary aperture is interiomarginal, umbilical, a low, symmetrical, sub-rectangular arch-like opening with no lip or rim. The dorsal supplementary apertures open in the spiral suture; each is an elongate, rather slit-like opening present at the base of each chamber in the last whorl at least and they may be present in the earlier whorls. The supplementary apertures do not possess lips or well marked rims. The wall is thick, and is coarsely and uniformly perforate. The surface of the test is markedly cancellate and punctate. [Banner & Blow 1960]
Size: Diam. 1/4 mill Maximum diameter of lectotype: 0.57 mm. [Banner & Blow 1960]
Extra details from original publication
Elle se distingue des autres espèces par ses loges égales en grosseur et par la forme gibbeuse que lui donnent les saillies des loges supérieures et inférieures.
Sie unterscheidet sich von den andern durch ihre in Groesse fast gleichen Kammern und durch ihre ausgeschweifte Form, welcher ihr die Vorsprünge der obern und untern Kammern geben."
Taxonomic remarks: D'Orbigny first described this species as having been obtained from marly plastic clays (of Vindobonian age) from the environs of Nussdorf, Austria. In the A. d'Orbigny collections in Paris a single mounted tube of specimens is extant, which bears the label ""Globigerina quadrilobata d'Orb., Tortonien, Nussdorf (Autriche)"" probably in Terquem's handwriting. On the back of tube mounting a further hand had written the reference ""p. 164, pI. 9, figs. 7-10."" This tube apparently originally contained eleven specimens; of these three have been lost, but of the remainder one was referable to Globigerina bilcbata d'Orbigny, two were referable to Globigerina bulloides d'Orbigny and the remaining five specimens were conspecific with the lectotype which was chosen from among them and which is here designated, described and illustrated. No specimens present in the collection agreed welI with d'Orbigny's illustrated specimen and it is probable that the specimen illustrated by d'Orbigny was among those which have been lost. So long as any of d'Orbigny's syntypic specimens exist the name G. quadrilobata must remain available for them and no neotype can be proposed. As it is clearly iliogical to presuppose that d'Orbigny erected the new name G. quadrilobata for a species (G. bulloides) which he had previously named or that he deliberately included his new and distinctive species Globigerina bilobata (described at the same time in 1846) in his quadrilobate species, we were forced to select a lectotype which belonged to a species which had not been described before 1846 and which was of fundamental quadrilobate form. This species, represented by the lectotype, was also the predominant form present in the syntypic series. [Banner & Blow 1960]
Remarks.-This species is congeneric with Globigerina rubra d'Orbigny and is consequently referable to the genus Globigerinoides Cushman 1927, as restricted by Bolli, Loeblich and Tappan 1957 (see also Banner and Blow, 1959).
This species is very closely related to the forms described as Globigerina triloba Reuss 1850, Globigerinoides sacculiferus (Brady) var. immatura LeRoy 1939, Sphaeroidinella cellata Subbotina 1958, as well as Globigerina sacculifera Brady 1879, and these forms seem to comprise a complicated evolving plexus in which further taxonomic differentiation is difficult, although certain groupings can be recognised which may be stratigraphically useful when recognised at subspecific level. If Globigerina quadrilobata d'Orbigny 1846 is recognised as the ""central morphological type"" then two extremes, exemplified by Globigerina triloba Reuss 1850 and Globigerina sacculifera Brady 1877 (or G. fistulosa Schubert), can be recognised. Thus the form described as Globigerinoides sacculiferus (Brady) var. irregularus LeRoy is intermediate in the plexus between G. quadrilobatus (d'Orbigny) and G. sacculifer (Brady). The full stratigraphic value of these Miocene to recent forms still has to be fully evaluated text-figure 1).
We are of the opinion that Sphaeroidinella cellata described by Subbotina (1958) is not referable to the genus Sphaeroidinella, but seems to be a particularly thick walled form lacking a cortex (see Blow 1959, Banner and Blow 1959), and which is closely related to the plexus group discussed above. We have seen similarly thick walled forms ourselves especially in deposits of probable Upper Vindobonian age.
Globigerinoides trilobus altiapertura Bolli 1957, which is believed to be confined to the Middle Aquitanian (Blow, 1959), is distinguished at subspecific level from Globigerinoides quadrilobatus (d'Orbigny) by its much larger, more rounded primary aperture and much more highly arched supplementary apertures (see also Remarks under Globigerina sacculifera). We consider Globigerinoides obliquus Bolli 1957, and Globigerinoides bollii Blow 1959 to be specifically distinct from G. quadrilobatus (d'Orbigny) and reference should be made to the respective authors' works (Bolli 1957, Blow 1959). [Banner & Blow 1960]"
d'Orbigny, A. (1846). Foraminiferes fossiles du bassin tertiaire de Vienne (Austriche). Gide et Companie, Paris. 1-312. gs Spezzaferri, S., Olsson, R. K. & Hemleben, C. (2018c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene to Lower Miocene Globigerinoides and Trilobatus. In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 9): 269-306. gs V O
d'Orbigny, A. (1846). Foraminiferes fossiles du bassin tertiaire de Vienne (Austriche). Gide et Companie, Paris. 1-312. gs
Spezzaferri, S., Olsson, R. K. & Hemleben, C. (2018c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene to Lower Miocene Globigerinoides and Trilobatus. In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 9): 269-306. gs V O
Globigerina quadrilobata compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 19-9-2021
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