pforams@mikrotax - Globigerinidae


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae
Sister taxa: Globigerinidae, Globorotaliidae, Hantkeninidae, Truncorotaloididae, Globanomalinidae, Genera incertae sedis ⟩⟨ Hastigerinidae ⟩⟨ Globigerinitidae, Candeinidae ⟩⟨ Guembelitrioidea, Benthic origins, hidden
Informal groups are based on the phylogeny of Aze et al. 2011 (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)Granddaughter taxa
Globigerina group
Digitate chambers:
B. digitata
B. praedigitata
B. sp.

Low trochospirally enrolled, globose test; 3-5, globular chambers in final whorl. Aperture interiomarginal, umbilical, a high arch bordered by a thin rim-like lip or thick imperforate lip. Wall spinose; spines supported by spine collars which coalesce to form ridges.
G. bulloides
G. falconensis
G. umbilicata
G. archaeobulloides
G. officinalis
G. sp.

Test initially trochospiral, becoming nearly planispiral; globular to ovate chambers; aperture umbilical; fine spines cover the test

Like Globigerinella but adult chambers radially elongate. (Late Miocene - Pliocene)
P. nicobarensis
P. prolixa
P. sp.

Like Globigerinella but adult chambers radially elongate. (Oligocene - Mid Miocene)
Q. clavacella
Q. nazcaensis
Q. sp.

Globigerinoides group
Like Globoturborotalita, but with distinctive reticulate wall, and 4½-5 chambers in final whorl
C. anguliofficinalis
C. angulisuturalis
C. ciperoensis
C. fariasi
C. sp.

Supplementary apertures, with ruber/sacculifer-type spinose wall texture

Supplementary apertures, cancellate wall & elongate extensions to final chamber.
G. fistulosa
G. sp.

Trochospiral test with a single, large, open umbilical aperture. Cancellate wall. 4-4½ chambers in final whorl

Spherical terminal chamber:
O. universa
O. suturalis
O. sp.

Terminal chamber partially enveloping previous chambers
P. circularis
P. glomerosa
P. curva
P. sp.

Like Sphaeroidinellopsis but with supplementary apertures
S. dehiscens
S. sp.

trochospiral test, globular chambers, and a heavy, smooth, shiny cortex
S. paenedehiscens
S. kochi
S. seminulina
S. disjuncta
S. sp.

Supplementary apertures and cancellate wall.

Minute, with bullate extension of the final chamber, smooth wall, large pores and short conical spines concentrated along the periphery.
T. clarkei
T. humilis
T. quinqueloba
T. praequinqueloba
T. carcoselleensis
T. sp.

Globoquadrina group
Trochospiral test with umbilically restricted aperture and usually one or more umbilical teeth

Trochospiral with quadrate to subquadrate profile; aperture in interiomarginal / umbilical-extraumbilical, one or more tooth-like projections extending into the umbilicus.
G. conglomerata
G. dehiscens
G. sp.

Paragloborotalia group
Like Globorotaloides but more compact, radially compressed, with appressed inflated chambers in the final whorl, and always with bulla
C. indianus
C. dissimilis
C. globiformis
C. africanus
C. howei
C. unicavus
C. sp.

low trochospiral test, later chanbers radially elongate and club shaped.
C. bermudezi
C. sp.

Very low trochospiral test with low-arched umbilical-extraumbilical aperture with a thick lip; 4-5 chambers in the ultimate whorl, and a coarsely cancellate, sacculifer-type wall.

Laterally compressed, often with bulla/bullate final chamber
P. dalhousiei
P. primitivus
P. sp.

Paleogene genera
Low, trochospiral test, 4-6½ globular chambers in final whorl; umbilicus small and open to the apertures of surrounding chambers. Wall cancellate and spinose wall with spine holes along the ridges.
E. spiralis
E. edita
E. eobulloides
E. sp.

Medium to large, subspherical to spherical tests; multiple secondary apertures, frequently covered by bullae.

Trochospiral test, ovate to spherical chambers; final chamber often small/bulla-like; cancellate wall.
G. hexagonus
G. oveyi
G. atlanticus
G. stainforthi
G. eovariabilis
G. quadrocameratus
G. suteri
G. testarugosus
G. variabilis
G. sp.

Like Subbotina gortanii group but with supplementary sutural apertures.
G. nuttalli
G. sp.

Spherical test with numerous small secondary apertures
O. beckmanni
O. sp.

Very low trochospiral test, chambers increasing rapidly in size; aperture high-arched umbilical-extraumbilical aperture. At most 5 chambers in final whorl.

Inflated, nearly involute, globular test, asymmetrical equatorial aperture; wall reticulate, Clavigerinella-type wall texture. May show uncoiling.
P. bolivariana
P. sp.

Low trochospiral, tripartite test, with 3-4 rapidly inflating, globular chambers in final whorl. Umbilicus nearly closed by tight coiling. Wall cancellate with spines at nodes of the ridges, +/- spine collars.


Citation: Globigerinidae Carpenter, Parker, and Jones, 1862
Rank: Family
Taxonomic discussion:

The family Globoquadrinidae was erected by Blow (1979) to include Globoquadrina and Dentoglobigerina plus other genera (Globorotaloides and Globigerinita, which is now regarded as a microperforate genus) that are no longer believed to be closely related. The critical feature that linked these groups, according to Blow, was a shift in aperture from a more extraumbilical to intraumbilical position during ontogeny, and significant differences in wall textures were not taken into account. Olsson and others (2006a) retained the family but in a very different sense, uniting two genera (Globoquadrina and Dentoglobigerina) that were believed, at that time to be nonspinose, and hence were excluded from the spinose Globigerinidae. These genera are now regarded as spinose or descended from a closely related spinose form (see Pearson and Wade, 2015, and Chapter 11, this volume) hence they are now included in family Globigerinidae. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

A great variety of species and genera with diverse morphologies evolved from the simple trochospiral globigerine forms in the Paleocene. Only the genera Eoglobigerina, Parasubbotina, and Subbotina are represented in the Paleocene. [Olsson et al. 1999]

Catalog entries: Globigerinidae, Globoquadrinidae

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (pf_cenozoic): This is a polyphyletic gruoping including all Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera
This taxon: Wall spinose, usually with 3½-6 globular chambers in final whorl, trochospiral or planispiral

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Emended description:


Wall type:


Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Most likely ancestor: Truncorotaloididae - at confidence level 2 (out of 5). Data source: Based on interpretation of Praemurica as ancestor of Eoglobigerina .
Likely descendants: Globorotaliidae; Hantkeninidae; Hastigerinidae; plot with descendants

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): at base of Danian Stage (0% up, 66Ma, in Danian stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 5, p. 69


Carpenter, W. B., Parker, W. K. & Jones, T. R. (1862). Introduction to the study of the Foraminifera. Published for the Ray society by R. Hardwicke, London. 1-319. gs V O

Coxall, H. K. & Spezzaferri, S. (2018). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, and Protentelloides. In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 4): 79-124. gs V O

Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N. & Huber, B. T. (2006c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 5): 67-110. gs V O


Globigerinidae compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 25-5-2022

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Short stable page link: Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Comments (1)

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Alessio Fabbrini (London, UK)

I noticed an imprecision in the description of the genus Globigerinoides. The wall texture must be ruber type or ruber/sacculifer type, instead of bulloides type.

Thank you.

Jeremy Young (London, UK)


i somehow missed your comment until just now but i have corrected the description now.

thank you Jeremy

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