Globigerinoides altiaperturus

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides -> Globigerinoides altiaperturus
Sister taxa: G. tenellus, G. elongatus, G. conglobatus, G. ruber ⟩⟨ G. obliquus, G. extremus, G. altiaperturus, G. eoconglobatus, G. joli, G. neoparawoodi ⟩⟨ G. kennetti, G. bollii, G. italicus ⟩⟨ G. mitra, G. seigliei, G. subquadratus, G. diminutus ⟩⟨ G. bulloideus, G. sp.


Citation: Globigerinoides altiaperturus Bolli, 1957
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerinoides triloba altiapertura
Synonyms: [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]
Taxonomic discussion:

The first occurrence of this species is documented just after the radiation level of Globigerinoides (Spezzaferri, 1994, 1996; Iaccarino and others, 1996) and it may represent an end member stage in the trend for the enlarging of the supplementary apertures on the spiral side. Bolli (1957) and Bolli and Saunders (1985) considered G. altiaperturus as a subspecies of T. trilobus, however it is here ranked as a species and considered separate from T. trilobus on account of the different wall texture.

[Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides triloba altiapertura

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Large, arched primary aperture and almost equally large supplementary aperture opposite it.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Normal perforate, spinose, ruber/sacculifer-type wall. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Morphology: Low trochospiral, subrectangular and lobulate in outline, chambers globular arranged in 2½ whorls, in the last whorl three to 3½ chambers increasing rapidly in size, the last chamber is equal to half of the test; sutures depressed, straight and radial in the inner whorls and slightly arched on both sides; umbilicus open and deep, enclosed by surrounding chambers. Primary aperture umbilical, a distinct and generally very rounded high arch. One very high arched supplementary sutural aperture on the spiral side opposite to the primary aperture. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.55 mm. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Low-moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:N/A
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.0-3.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Common at mid to low latitudes, outside upwelling zones (Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Spezzaferri, 1994). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: Globigerinoides altiaperturus is a surface water dweller with lowest δ18O and highest δ13C in the assemblage where it is found (Stewart and others, 2012). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: Globigerinoides altiaperturus probably evolved from Globigerinoides joli n. sp. in the upper part of Subzone M1b. It gave rise to G. obliquus at the very end of Subzone M1b. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinoides joli - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Spezzaferri et al. 2018.
Likely descendants: Globigerinoides obliquus;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: From Subzone M1b, just below the boundary between Zone M1/M2 (Spezzaferri, 1996; Iaccarino and others, 1996) to Zone M4 (Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Spezzaferri, 1994). It is a useful marker species for the lower Miocene (e.g., Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Bolli and Saunders, 1985). In Hole 516F in the Atlantic Ocean this species first occurs at the base of Zone M2 (= N5) (Spezzaferri, 1994; Spezzaferri and Pearson, 2009). At the Aquitanian GSSP at Lemme (Italy) the FO of G. altiaperturus is documented at 13 m, in Subchron C6AAr2r, in the upper part of Subzone M1b, just below the Subzone M1/M2 boundary (Spezzaferri, 1996; Iaccarino and others, 1996). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018] NB Wade et al. (2011) record the base of the species high in M2, this was based on Berggren et al. (1995). [editor's comment - JRY 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within M4 zone (16.38-17.54Ma, top in Burdigalian stage). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983
First occurrence (base): near top of M1b subzone (90% up, 21.3Ma, in Aquitanian stage). Data source: Recorded as additional event by Wade et al. (201) but position revised downward

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Spezzaferri et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.9 p.274; Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.54


Bolli, H. M. & Saunders, J. B. (1985). Oligocene to Holocene low latitude planktic foraminifera. In, Bolli, H. M., Saunders, J. B. & Perch-Neilsen, K. (eds) Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 155-262. gs

Bolli, H. M. (1957b). Planktonic foraminifera from the Oligocene-Miocene Cipero and Lengua formations of Trinidad, B.W.I. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr., Tappan, H., Beckmann, J. P., Bolli, H. M., Montanaro Gallitelli & E. Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 97-123. gs V O

Borsetti, A., Loik, L. & Colantoni, P. (1984). Variazioni nella sedimentazione al passaggio glaciale postglaciale e Olocene in alcuni bacini nord-tirrenici evidenziate dal contenuto microfaunistico. Memorie della Societa Geologica Italiana. 27: 323-332. gs

Chaisson, W. P. & Leckie, R. M. (1993). High-resolution Neogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of Site 806, Ontong Java Plateau (Western Equatorial Pacific). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 130: 137-178. gs

Iaccarino, S., Borsetti, A. M. & Rögl, F. (1996). Planktonic foraminifera of the Neogene Lemme-Carrosio GSSP Section (Piedmont, Northern Italy). Giornale di Geologia. 58: 35-49. gs

Jenkins, D. G. (1971). New Zealand Cenozoic Planktonic Foraminifera. New Zealand Geological Survey, Paleontological Bulletin. 42: 1-278. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Norris, R. D. (1998). Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy: Eastern Equatorial Atlantic. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 159: 445-479. gs V O

Postuma, J. A. (1971). Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Elsevier for Shell Group, The Hague. 1-406. gs

Spezzaferri, S. & Pearson, P. N. (2009). Distribution and ecology of Catapsydrax indianus, a new planktonic foraminifer index species for the Late Oligocene–Early Miocene. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39(2): 112-119. gs

Spezzaferri, S. (1994). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and taxonomy of the Oligocene and lower Miocene in the oceanic record. An overview. Palaeontographia Italica. 81: 1-187. gs

Spezzaferri, S. (1996). The Oligocene/Miocene boundary in the Lemme Section (Piedmont Basin, Northern Italy): paleoclimatic evidence based on planktonic foraminifera. Giornale di Geologia. 58: 119-139. gs

Spezzaferri, S., Olsson, R. K. & Hemleben, C. (2018c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene to Lower Miocene Globigerinoides and Trilobatus. In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 9): 269-306. gs V O

Stewart, J. A., Wilson, P. A., Edgar, K. M., Anand, P. & R. H. , J. (2012). Geochemical assessment of the palaeoecology, ontogeny, morphotypic variability and palaeoceanographic utility of “Dentoglobigerina” venezuelana. Marine Micropaleontology. 84-85: 74-86. gs

Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., Berggren, W. A. & Pälike, H. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews. 104: 111-142. gs


Globigerinoides altiaperturus compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 5-3-2021

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