Subbotina triloculinoides

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Subbotina -> Subbotina triloculinoides
Sister taxa: S. projecta, S. tecta, S. jacksonensis, S. corpulenta, S. eocaena, S. gortanii, S. crociapertura, S. yeguaensis, S. senni, S. roesnaesensis ⟩⟨ S. utilisindex, S. angiporoides, S. minima, S. linaperta, S. patagonica ⟩⟨ S. cancellata, S. hornibrooki, S. velascoensis, S. triloculinoides, S. triangularis, S. trivialis, S. sp.


Citation: Subbotina triloculinoides (Plummer 1927)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina triloculinoides
Taxonomic discussion: Together with Parasubbotina pseudobulloides (Plummer), this taxon is probably one of the most cited, yet most frequently misidentified, taxa of the Paleocene. The detailed analysis of Blow (1979) may serve as a guide to a reasonably consistent delineation of the main characteristics of this species. Although S. triloculinoides has a strongly cancellate wall texture, its does not possess the symmetrical, coarsely cancellate wall of the cancellata -velascoensis lineage. The ancestral S. trivialis is more weakly cancellate, and S. triangularis has an asymmetrical cancellate surface with distinct spine collars. Unlike Blow (1979), we do not recognize the two subgroups (aside from S. triloculinoides sensu stricto) to which some sort of formal nomenclature may be applied: S. triloculinoides stainforthi Blow and S. triloculinoides nana Blow. The former is interpreted as a junior synonym of S. triloculinoides, as has been more or less suggested by Bolli (1957a), and the "taxon" nana Khalilov is a squat, subquadrate form with a linaperta-like aperture referable to S. velascoensis (Cushman) and not to S. triloculinoides (verified by examination of the holotype by WAB). Khalilov (1967) indicated that the range of nana is upper Paleocene to lower Eocene in the Malyi Caucasus (Azerbaizhan) and Malyi Balkhan (Turkmenia); the morphology of velascoensis (= nana), however, already appears in Zone P3. The SEMs of the holotype (Plate 9: Figures 13-15) of S. microcellulosa ( Morozova) show this taxon to be a junior synonym of triloculinoides. [Olsson et al. 1999]

Catalog entries: Globigerina triloculinoides, Globigerina (Globigerina) microcellulosa, Globigerina stainforthi, Globigerina pseudotriloba

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Test medium sized, lobulate, trilobate with 3-3½ chambers in final whorl, increasing moderately in size. The ultimate chamber forms up to ½ of the test. Intercameral sutures depressed, straight to slightly curved on umbilical and spiral sides of the test. Umbilicus narrow, deep, often covered by a well developed apertural lip. Aperture umbilical, slightly asymmetrical towards an extraumbilical direction. The test walls strongly cancellate, spinose.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Inflatedcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thick lip
umb chbr shape:Inflatedumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.0-3.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Essentially a worldwide distribution in the low to high latitudes (Figure 12). [Olsson et al. 1999]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Cosmopolitan; based on Olsson et al. (1999)

Isotope paleobiology: Subbotina triloculinoides has a ∂13C
and ∂18O signature similar to P. pseudobulloides, P. varianta, G. compressa, and G. planocompressa, but it typically has a I8 I3 heavier 8 0 and more negative 8 C than coexisting Praemurica and Morozovella. The species shows little change in ∂18O or ∂13C over a large size range (Berggren and Norris, 1997). [Olsson et al. 1999]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light δ13C and relatively heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Berggren & Norris (1997); Coxall et al. (2000)

Phylogenetic relations: Although Blow (1979) was of the opinion that the origin of S. triloculinoides lay in the plexus of forms that radiate from Eoglobigerina eobulloides sensu lato toward E. trivialis and S. triloculinoides, and, more specifically, with F eobulloides simplicissima, we view its evolution from S. trivialis to be more likely (see also Olsson et al., 1992). [Olsson et al. 1999]

Most likely ancestor: Subbotina trivialis - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 1999 f5a.
Likely descendants: Subbotina velascoensis;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zones Plb to P4. Although its upper stratigraphic limit remains somewhat equivocal, we have not observed it above Zone P4 and believe it is restricted to the Paleocene. [Olsson et al. 1999]
The FAD of Subbotina triloculinoides marks the base of zone P1b / top of P1a (Wade et al. 2011)
Last occurrence (top): within P4 zone (57.10-60.73Ma, top in Thanetian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 1999
First occurrence (base): at base of P1b subzone (0% up, 65.3Ma, in Danian stage). Data source: zonal marker (Wade et al. 2011)

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 1999 - Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic Foraminifera, p. 31


Berggren, W. A. (1962a). Some planktonic foraminifera from the Maestrichtian and type Danian stages of southern Scandinavia. Stockholm Contributions in Geology. 9(1): 1-106. gs

Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

Bolli, H. M. & Cita, M. B. (1960). Globigerine e Globorotalie del Paleocene di Paderno d'Adda (Italia). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia. LXVI(3): 1-42. gs

Bolli, H. M. (1957d). The genera Globigerina and Globorotalia in the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Lizard Springs Formation of Trinidad. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr., Tappan, H., Beckmann, J. P., Bolli, H. M., Montanaro Gallitelli, E. & Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 61-82. gs V O

Brönnimann, P. (1952d). Trinidad Paleocene and lower Eocene Globigerinidae. Bulletins of American Paleontology. 34(143): 1-34. gs

Brotzen, F. & Pozaryska, K. (1961). Foraminiferes du Paleocene et de l'Eocene inferieur en Pologne septentrionale; remarques paleogeographiques. Revue de Micropaléontologie. 4: 155-166. gs

Hillebrandt, A. , von (1962). Das Paleozän und seine Foraminiferenfauna im Becken von Reichenhall und Salzburg. Abhandlungen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Neue Folge. 108: 1-182. gs

Loeblich, A. R. & Tappan, H. (1957b). Planktonic foraminifera of Paleocene and early Eocene Age from the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr., Tappan, H., Beckmann, J. P., Bolli, H. M., Montanaro Gallitelli, E. & Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 173-198. gs V O

Morozova, V. G. (1961). Datsko-Montskie planktonnye foraminifery yuga SSSR [Danian-Montian Planktonic Foraminifera of the Southern USSR]. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal. 2(Aug-19): -. gs

Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Berggren, W. A. & Huber, B. T. (1999). Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 1-252. gs

Plummer, H. J. (1926). Foraminifera of the Midway formation in Texas. University of Texas Bulletin. 2644: 1-206. gs

Postuma, J. A. (1971). Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Elsevier for Shell Group, The Hague. 1-406. gs

Stott, L. D. & Kennett, J. P. (1990). The Paleoceanographic and Paleoclimatic signature of the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Antarctic: Stable isotopic results from ODP Leg 113. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 113: 829-848. gs

Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., Berggren, W. A. & Pälike, H. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews. 104: 111-142. gs

White, M. P. (1928). Some Index Foraminifera of the Tampico Embayment Area of Mexico. Journal of Paleontology. 2(3): 177-215. gs


Subbotina triloculinoides compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 14-5-2021

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