radiolaria - rads_cenozoic - Carpocanarium papillosum radiolaria - rads_cenozoic - Carpocanarium papillosum

Carpocanarium papillosum

Classification: rads_cenozoic -> Carpocaniidae -> Carpocanarium -> Carpocanarium papillosum
Sister taxa: C. papillosum, C. sp.


Citation: Carpocanarium papillosum (Ehrenberg 1872)
taxonomic rank: species
Basionym: Eucyrtidium papillosum Nigrini & Moore 1979
1872 Eucyrtidium papillosum - Ehrenberg p. 310-311
1873 Eucyrtidium papillosum - Ehrenberg pl. 7, fig. 10
1887 Dictyocephalus papillosus - Haeckel p. 1307
1958 Dictyocephalus papillosus - Riedel p. 236-238; pl. 3, fig. 10; text-fig. 8
1966 Dictyocephalus mediterraneus - Benson p. 439-441; pl. 29, fig. 13
1967 Dictyocryphalus papillosus - Nigrini p. 63-64; pl. 6, fig. 6
1971 Carpocanarium spp. - Riedel and Sanfilippo p. 1599-1600; pl. 11, figs. 18, 20, 22-25; pl. 2J, figs. 8, 9(?)
1974 Carpocanarium papillosum - Renz p. 789; pl. 17, fig. 21
1976 Dictyocryphalus papillosus - Renz p. 139-140; pl. 6, fig. 9
1977 Dictyocryphalus papillosus - Molina-Cruz p. 338; pl. 7, fig. 13
1979 Carpocanarium papillosum - Nigrini and Moore pl. 21, fig. 3
1980 Carpocanarium papillosum - Johnson and Nigrini p. 127; pl. 3, fig. 6
1981 Carpocanarium papillosum - Takahashi and Honjo p. 155; pl. 10, fig. 17
1983 Carpocanarium papillosum group - Benson p. 501
1987 Dictyocephalus papillosus - Bjørklund and de Ruiter fig. 6, no. 17
1991 Carpocanarium papillosum - Takahashi p. 132; pl. 45, figs. 16-17
1995 Dictyocephalus papillosus - van de Paverd p. 255; pl. 76, fig. 24
1998 Dictyocephalus papillosus - Boltovskoy figs. 15.135 a-c
1999 Plannapus papillosus - O_Connor p.6-7
Taxonomic discussion: (Ehrenberg) 1872a p 310; --- 1872b pl 7 fig 10 as Eucyrtidium; Nigrini & Moore 1979 p N27 pl 21 fig 3 (synonymy)

Catalog entries: Eucyrtidium papillosum

Original description: Oblong-ovate three-segmented form; cephalis subglobose, irregularly porous, -with a vestige of a rib. Second segment largest, with irregular rows of round papillae projecting on the margin, third segment membranaceous, smooth, separated by a stricture; 5 - 6 papillae in a transverse direction. (Translated from Latin by E.M.R. and W.R.R.)]


Published descriptions

Haeckel 1887 - Eucyrtidium papillosum

Shell thin-walled, papillate with obliterated collar stricture. Length of the two joints=2:7, breadth=3:5. Cephalic hemispherical, with small, circular pores. Thorax slenderly ovate, with larger, subregular, circular pores, separated by oblique series of conical papillae. Mouth with a broad, hyaline peristome (the third articulusof Ehrenberg), separated by a stricture from the little broader thorax.

Dimensions: Cephalis 0.02 long, 0.03 broad; thorax 0.07 long, 0.05 broad.

Riedel 1958 - Eucyrtidium papillosum

Cephalis approximately hemispherical, with small subcircular pores in a hyaline shell-wall, set off from thorax by a pronounced change in contour. Many specimens have a small, inconspicuous lateral tubule projecting slightly from the cephalis near its junction with the thorax, and a short, acute apical horn. Thorax ovate, usually with a rough surface, and with a conspicuous subcylindrical or flared peristome surrounding the mouth which is approximately one-half to two-thirds as broad as the thorax. Thoracic pores subcircular to circular, usually of different sizes and without regular arrangement, separated by rather wide and often thick intervening bars. In the upper part of the thoracic wall are three, usually conspicuous longitudinal ribs, which in many specimens terminate in three short, solid, triangular lateral wings at or about the level at which the thorax reaches its maximum breadth. Length of cephalis 18-25 ì, of thorax (including peristome) 60-90 ì. Maximum breadth of thorax 58-70 ì.

Benson 1966 - Eucyrtidium papillosum

Cephalis cap-shaped, with a small, inconspicuous, dorsal lobe that covers the jugular pores of the collar ring; smooth with small circular pores; separated from a generally smooth, ovate or spindle-shaped thorax by a distinct change in contour. Six collar pores present in most specimens. Apical bar a rib in the dorsal cephalic face which is covered by a small, latticed, dorsal lobe; extends vertically as a short, conical apical spine in some tests; vertical bar extends as a short spine into a short, inconspicuous, hyaline, ventral tubule which is absent in a few specimens; dorsal and primary lateral bars continue for a short distance in the thoracic wall as ribs, raised in a few specimens, in several tests terminating in short spines. Pores of thorax circular, increasing in size distally, separated by heavy intervening bars, arranged hexagonally in longitudinal rows (7-8 on half the circumference), with hexagonal frames present in a few specimens. Mouth of thorax constricted, with a thick, long, lamellar, hyaline peristome generally without terminal teeth but in a few tests with as many as eight, large, triangular teeth which either extend vertically or are convergent inward.

Measurements: based on 13 specimens from station 27: length of test (including peristome) 95-123 µm, of cephalis 17-22 µm, of apical. spine (generally unobservable) 2-6 µm, of hyaline peristome 12-21 µm; breadth of cephalis 25-28 µm, of thorax (maximum) 62-77 µm.

Remarks: Dictyocephalus australis Haeckel differs from D. mediterraneus Haeckel only in the presence of double-contoured thoracic pores. This feature was observed in one specimen from the Gulf and, therefore, is subject to intraspecific variation. D. mediterraneus differs from an Antarctic species identified by Riedel (1958, pp. 236-238) as D. papillosus (Ehrenberg) in the more regular hexagonal arrangement of pores in vertical rows, a less rough thoracic surface, and less conspicuous primary lateral and dorsal, raised, longitudinal thoracic ribs. Because Riedel's original material, was not examined, synonymy of D. mediterraneus with D. papillosus is not proposed, but they may be the same species.

Distribution: In the Gulf this species is very rare and occurs only as far north as station 136.It is absent at stations 64, 90, 95, 130, 133, 151, and all those to the north. It is, therefore, an oceanic species with little affinity for Gulf waters and does not respond to upwelling in the southern Gulf. Riedel (1958, p. 238) states that D. papillosus is probably cosmopolitan, occurring in Antarctic waters, tropical parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans and in the northern Pacific.D.mediterraneus was reported by Haeckel from the Mediterranean Sea and D. australis from the east coast of Australia, in both localities from near the surface. If the Gulf species is the same as Riedel's species it is an apparently cosmopolitan species; otherwise, it is widespread only in Recent tropical seas. \ From: Benson, 1966, p. 439-441; pl. 29, fig. 13:Dictyocephalus mediterraneus HaeckelDictyocephalus mediterraneus Haeckel, 1887, Challenger Rept., Zool., vol. 18, p. 1307, Pl. 62, fig. 2.Dictyocephalus australis Haecke1, 1887, Challenger Rept., Zool., vol. 18, p. 1306, Pl. 62, fig. 2.

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Lazarus et al. 2015 - "R age group"
First occurrence (base): within Quaternary Period (0.00-2.59Ma, base in Gelasian stage). Data source: Lazarus et al. 2015 - "R age group"

Plot of occurrence data:


Benson, R. N. (1966). Recent Radiolaria from the Gulf of California. Thesis, Minnesota University. 1-577. gs

Benson, R. N. (1983). Quaternary radiolarians from the Mouth of the Gulf of California, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 65. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 65: 491-523. gs

Bjørklund, K. R. & de Ruiter, R. (1987). Radiolarian preservation in eastern Mediterranean anoxic sediments. Marine Geology. 75: 271-281. gs

Ehrenberg, C. G. (1872). Nachthrag zur Übersicht der organischen Atmosphärilien. Abhandlungen der koniglichen preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. (1871): 233-275. gs

Ehrenberg, C. G. (1873b). Mikrogeologische Studien als Zusammenfassung seiner Beobachtungen des kleinsten Lebens der Meeres-Tiefgründe aller Zonen und dessen geologischen Einfluss. Monatsberichte der Koniglichen Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1872: 265-322. gs

Haeckel, E (1887). Report on the Radiolaria collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. 18: 1-1803. gs O

Johnson, D. A. & Nigrini, C. A. (1980). Radiolarian biogeography in surface of the western Indian Ocean. Marine Micropaleontology. 5(2): 111-152. gs

Molina-Cruz, A. (1977). Radiolarian assemblages and their relationship to the oceanography of the subtropical southeastern Pacific. Marine Micropaleontology. 2(4): 315-352. gs

Nigrini, C. A. & Moore, T. C. Jr. (1979). A guide to modern Radiolaria. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 16: 1-260. gs O

Nigrini, C. A. (1967). Radiolaria in pelagic sediments from the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 11: 1-125. gs

Renz, G. W. (1976). The distribution and ecology of Radiolaria in the central Pacific: plankton and surface sediments. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 22: 1-267. gs

Riedel, W. R. & Sanfilippo, A. (1971). Cenozoic Radiolaria from the western tropical Pacific, Leg 7. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 7: 1529-1666. gs

Riedel, W. R. (1958). Radiolaria in Antarctic sediments. B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Research Expedition Reports. 6(10): 217-255. gs

Takahashi, K. & Honjo, S. (1981). Vertical flux of Radiolaria: A taxon-quantitative sediment trap study from the western tropical Atlantic. Micropaleontology. 27(2): 140-190. gs

Takahashi, K. (1991). Radiolaria: Flux, ecology, and Taxonomy in the Pacific and Atlantic. Ocean Biocoenosis Series. 3: 1-301. gs

Missing or ambiguous references: Ehrenberg 1873;


Carpocanarium papillosum compiled by the radiolaria@mikrotax project team viewed: 25-6-2024

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