radiolaria - rads_cenozoic - Phorticium pylonium radiolaria - rads_cenozoic - Phorticium pylonium

Phorticium pylonium

Classification: rads_cenozoic -> Litheliidae -> Larnacillidae -> Phorticium -> Phorticium pylonium
Sister taxa: P. clevei, P. multispinum, P. polycladum, P. pylonium, P. strobilinum, P. sp.


Citation: Phorticium pylonium Haeckel 1887
taxonomic rank: species
Basionym: Phorticium pylonium
1887 Phorthicium pylonium - Haeckel p.709; pl. 49, fig. 10
1899 Phorthicium pylonium - Cleve p. 31; pl. 3, fig. 2
1900 Tetrapylonium clevei - Jørgensen p. 64
1905 Phorthicium pylonium - Jørgensen pp. 120-121; pl. 10, fig. 42; pl. 11, figs. 42-45
1909 Phorthicium pylonium - Schröder pp. 55-56; figs. 33a-c
1958 Phorthicium pylonium - Riedel p. 229; pl. 2, fig. 5
1966 Phorticium pylonium - Benson p. 252-256; pl. 16, figs. 5-9; pl. 17, figs. 1-3
1967 Phorticium clevei - Petrushevskaya pp. 56-60; figs. 32(1-2), 33-34
1974 Phorticium clevei - Petrushevskaya and Bjørklund fig. 7
1976 Phorticium clevei - Bjørklund pl. 4, figs. 6-10
1977 Pylospira octopyle? - Molina-Cruz p. 335; pl. 3, fig. 9
1979 Pylospira octopyle(?) - Nigrini and Moore p. S139-S140; pl. 17, figs. 6a-6c
1983 Phorticium pylonium group - Benson p. 506; pl. 7, figs. 15-16
1991 Phorticium clevei - Molina-Cruz fig. 2.5
1995 Phorticium clevei - Schröder-Ritzrau pl. 2, figs. 1-2, 5
1996 Phorticium pylonium - Welling pl. 12, figs. 10-11
1998 Phorticium clevei - Bjørklund et al. pl. 1, fig. 15
1998 Phorticium clevei - Boltovskoy fig. 15.82
1998 Phorticium clevei - Dolven pl. 7, figs. 1-6
2003 Phorticium pylonium - Bjørklund and Kruglikova pl. 3, figs. 10-12, 14-15
2003 Phorticium pylonium - Cortese et al. pl. 2, figs. 12-13; pl. 3, fig. 5; pl. 4, figs. 18-19

Catalog entries: Phorticium pylonium

Original description: Cortical shell irregular, roundish, about three times as large as the enclosed lentelliptical; regular, Larnacilla-shell, connected with it by some radial beams and irregularly latticed girdles; between these remain four to eight large open gates of irregular roundish form and size; and these gates are the same as in Tetrapyle and Octopyle. This very variable species may be regarded as a monstrosity of those genera of Pylonida; it is very common, but all individuals are more or less unequal; some specimens approach to some common species of Tetrapyle. The surface of the shell is more or less spiny.

Remarks on original description: Haeckel listed Phorticium pylonium under the subgeneric name Phortopyle, but did not include the subgeneric name the species name.


Published descriptions

Benson 1966 - Phorthicium pylonium

Benson, 1966, p. 252-256; pl. 16, figs. 5-9; pl. 17, figs. 1-3: Phorticium pylonium (Haeckel) ClevePhorticium pylonium Haeckel, 1887, Challenger Rept., Zool., vol. 18, p.709, Pl. 49, fig. 10; Cleve, Kongl. Svenska Vetenskap-Akad., Handlingar, 1899, p. 31, Pl. 3, figs. 2a-d. Phorticium pylonium (Haeckel?) Cleve; Jørgensen, 1905, Bergens Mus. Skrifter, pp. 120-121, Pl. 10, figs. 42a-d; Pl. 11, figs. 42e-f, 43-45d.; Riedel, 1958, B.A.N.Z.A.R.E. Repts., ser. B, vol. 6, pt. 10, p. 229, Pl. 2, fig. 5.

Petrushevskaya 1967 - Phorthicium pylonium

Complex latticed skeleton. Inner part composed of several chambers disposed in spiral. Width of chambers in successive turns increasing greatly. Chambers not with continuous walls, as in species related to genus Lithelius but are as it were made lighter: only the middle part remains. This leads to formation of arches. Direction of spiral along which chambers are disposed alters and therefore structure of shell difficult to draw schematically. Altogether not more than five marked turns. Chambers crossed by numerous radial cross pieces projecting to the outside (usually broken off). Pores unequal in size, varying in shape, disposed irregularly. Growth of shell begins from central, more compact part. Then apophyses forming on radial needles give rise to walls of subsequent wider turns. Young specimens with very dense spiral greatly differentiated from adults, more, complex structure of shell causes it to appear differently when viewed from different sides: in two basic positions is appears almost symmetrical, but obliquely spiral arrangement of chambers is clearly seen.

Dimensions: largest diameter of shell with five turns up to 200 micrometer, central oval core in which four turns clearly seen has largest diameter of about 100 micrometer, and smallest of about 80 micrometer. Diameter of pores on fourth turn 5-15 micrometer.

Benson 1983 - Phorthicium pylonium


Remarks: This group differs from the Tetrapyle octacantha group in (1) the presence of more than three (as many as five) systems of dimensive girdles supported by numerous radial beams (20-30) not confined to the region of the dimensive axes of the test, and (2) the presence, in fully-developed individuals, of an ellipsoidal outer shell of smooth [although spiny] outline (Benson, 1966, pl. 17, figs. 1-3; this chapter, Plate 7, Fig. 15) similar to the outer shell of Hexapyle dodecantha and Larcopyle bütschlii. This group is a difficult one to work with because in certain orientations individuals appear as a double spiral (Benson, 1964, pl. 1, fig. 61; 1966, pl. 16, figs. 5, 8) and in others as a concentric system of elliptical shells (Benson, 1966, pl. 16, fig. 9; this chapter, Plate 7, Fig. 16).

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Lazarus et al. 2015 - "R age group"
First occurrence (base): within Quaternary Period (0.00-2.59Ma, base in Gelasian stage). Data source: Lazarus et al. 2015 - "R age group"

Plot of occurrence data:


Benson, R. N. (1966). Recent Radiolaria from the Gulf of California. Thesis, Minnesota University. 1-577. gs

Benson, R. N. (1983). Quaternary radiolarians from the Mouth of the Gulf of California, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 65. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 65: 491-523. gs

Bjørklund, K. R. (1976). Radiolaria from the Norwegian Sea, Leg 38 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 38: 1101-1168. gs

Bjørklund, K. R., Cortese, G., Swanberg, N. & Schrader, H. J. (1998). Radiolarian faunal provinces in surface sediments of the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) Seas. Marine Micropaleontology. 35(1-2): 105-140. gs

Boltovskoy, D. (1998). Classification and distribution of south Atlantic recent polycystine Radiolaria. Palaeontologia Electronica. -. gs

Haeckel, E (1887). Report on the Radiolaria collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. 18: 1-1803. gs O

Jørgensen, E (1900). Protophyten und Protozoen im Plankton aus der norwegischen Westkuste. Bergens Museums Aarbog. 1899(6): 51-95. gs O

Jørgensen, E (1905). The protist plankton and diatoms in bottom samples: Radiolaria. In, Nordgaard (ed.) Hydrographical and biological investigation in Norwegian Fjord. 49-151. gs O

Molina-Cruz, A. (1977). Radiolarian assemblages and their relationship to the oceanography of the subtropical southeastern Pacific. Marine Micropaleontology. 2(4): 315-352. gs

Molina-Cruz, A. (1991). Holocene palaeo-oceanography of the northern Iceland Sea, indicated by Radiolaria and sponge spicules. Journal of Quaternary Science. 6(4): 303-312. gs

Nigrini, C. A. & Moore, T. C. Jr. (1979). A guide to modern Radiolaria. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 16: 1-260. gs O

Petrushevskaya, M. G. & Bjørklund, K. R. (1974). Radiolarians in Holocene sediments of the Norwegian-Greenland seas. Sarsia. 57: 33-46. gs

Petrushevskaya, M. G. (1967). Radiolayarii otryadov Spumellaria i Nassellaria Antarkicheskoi oblasti (po materialam Sovetskoi Antarkitcheskikh Ekspeditsii). [Antarctic Spumelline and Nasselline radiolarians (from materials from the Soviet Antarctic Expedition)]. Issledovanie Faunyi Morey (Akademii Nauk SSSR) Leningrad. 4(12): 5-186. gs

Riedel, W. R. (1958). Radiolaria in Antarctic sediments. B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Research Expedition Reports. 6(10): 217-255. gs

Schröder, O. (1909a). Die nordischen Spumellarian. In, Brandt, K. & Apstein, C. (eds) Nordisches Plankton. Lipsius und Tischer, Kiel and Leipzig, Germany 1-66. gs O

Schröder-Ritzrau, A (1995). Aktuopalaontologische Untersuchung zu Verbreitung und VertikalfluB von Radiolarien sowie ihre raurnliche und zeitliche Entwicklung im Europaischen Nordmeer. Berichte Sondeiforschungsbereich Univ Kiel. 313(52): 1-99. gs

Welling, L. A. (1996). Environmental control of radiolarian abundance and composition in the central equatorial Pacific. PhD thesis, Oregon State University. 1(258): -. gs

Missing or ambiguous references: Cleve 1899;


Phorticium pylonium compiled by the radiolaria@mikrotax project team viewed: 20-6-2024

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