radiolaria - rads_cenozoic - Spongurus cylindricus radiolaria - rads_cenozoic - Spongurus cylindricus

Spongurus cylindricus


Classification: rads_cenozoic -> Spongodiscidae -> Sponguridae -> Spongurus -> Spongurus cylindricus
Sister taxa: S. bilobatus, S. cauleti, S. cylindricus, S. pylomaticus, S. quadratus, S. spatulaeformis, S. sp.

Taxonomy

Citation: Spongurus cylindricus Haeckel 1861
taxonomic rank: species
Basionym: Spongurus cylindricus
Synonyms:
1887 Spongocore puella - Haeckel p. 347; pl. 48, fig. 6
1966 Spongocore puella - Benson pl. 8, figs. 1-3
1970 Spongocore puella - Nigrini pl. 2, fig. 3
1979 Spongocore puella - Nigrini and Moore pl. 8, figs. 5a-c
1983 Spongocore puella - Benson p. 508
1995 Spongocore puella - Schröder-Ritzrau pl. 3, fig. 7
1998 Spongocore cylindrica - Boltovskoy fig. 15.74
Taxonomic discussion:

Remarks.—Spongy cylindrical shells with or without protruding spines and a patagium mantle. This species is well marked by a triconvex spongy shell. Morphological characteristics are similar to those of Spongurus puella (Haeckel, 1887), but this species was synonymized with Spongurus cylindricus Haeckel, 1861b, due to morpho- logical variations (e.g. Dumitrica, 1973). A cylindrical spongy form of this species is a distinguishing character- istic from Spongurus? pylomaticus Riedel, 1958. The presence of a spongy mantle may change depending on ontogenetic differences. [Matsuzaki et al. 2015]

Catalog entries: Spongurus cylindricus

Original description: Schwammcylinder 5mal so lang als dick, in der Mitte und an beiden Enden etwas angeschwollen. Gegen 20 nach allen Seiten abstehende radiale Stacheln, halb so lang, als der Cylinder. Centralkapsel roth.

Description


Published descriptions


Benson 1966 - Spongocore puella

Benson, 1966, p. 187-189; pl. 8, figs. 1-3: Spongocore puella Haeckel Spongocore puella Haeckel, 1887, Challenger Rept., Zool., vol. 18, p.347, Pl. 48, fig. 6. Spongocore polyacantha Popofsky, 1912, Deutsche Südpolar-Exped., vol. 13, pp. 116-117, text fig. 27. Fully developed forms consisting of a cylindrical, solid, spongy-appearing test with three joints separated by two constrictions, the middle joint ranging from 1-2 times the lengths of the terminal joints; with numerous, thin, conical, radial spines arising from the surface of all three joints; with the middle joint covered by a spindle-shaped, relatively smooth, thin walled lattice-mantle having small, unequal, irregular pores; mantle supported by numerous radial spines that arise from the middle joint. Mantle absent or rudimentary in most tests, but a complete gradation exists between the incomplete and complete forms. A few tests with radial spines absent or rudimentary. Solid, spongy-appearing part of test not spongy but consists of closely spaced concentric shells. In one specimen the test is bent into a gentle curve.

Measurements: based on 30 specimens from stations 27,and 34: length of test 188-363 µm; diameter of middle joint 37-71 µm, of terminal joints 30-68 µm; length of lattice-mantle 123-191 µm, maximum breadth 74-111 mm; length of radial spines 2-25 µm.

Remarks: No specimens with unbranched spines corresponding in length to those of Spongurus cylindricus Haeckel (1862, p. 465, Pl. 27, fig. 1) were observed from the Gulf, but study of Haeckel's type material of this species may reveal a gradation to forms with a lattice-mantle. Spongocore polyacantha Popofsky represents an incompletely developed specimen of S. pue1la; several specimens from the Gulf were observed with relatively long radial spines, with those arising from the middle joint having branches or rudimentary structures of the lattice-mantle present at a common level.

Distribution: This species occurs throughout the Gulf as far north as stations 191 and 192. It is rare at all stations except 64 where it is common (2.0%); it is absent at stations 130, 194, 203, 206, 208, and 214. Its higher frequency at station 64 may be explained either by upwelling or by reduction of its dilution by other species. If upwelling does control its distribution, it does so only in this region off the Mexican mainland because at other stations located within areas of upwelling it undergoes no significant increases in its frequency. Its greater frequency in the southern half of the Gulf and its gradual decrease to the north suggests that it has a greater affinity for normal oceanic water masses but is also, to some extent, tolerant of slightly greater salinity and temperature. Haeckel (1887, p 347) reported this species from the surface of the South Pacific at Challenger stations 295-304, off the west coast of Chile within the water mass of the Humboldt Current. Popofsky (1912, p 116) reported Spongocore polyacantha from the western tropical part of the Indian Ocean. The Gulf specimens of this species may have been derived from the water masses of the cold Humboldt Current which would suggest its occurrence in high latitudes. Its occurrence in the tropical part of the Indian Ocean, as well as its presence in the tropical Pacific fauna of the Gulf of California, however, suggests that it is cosmopolitan.


Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Lazarus et al. 2015 - "R age group"
First occurrence (base): within Quaternary Period (0.00-2.59Ma, base in Gelasian stage). Data source: Lazarus et al. 2015 - "R age group"

Plot of occurrence data:

References:

Benson, R. N. (1966). Recent Radiolaria from the Gulf of California. Thesis, Minnesota University. 1-577. gs

Benson, R. N. (1983). Quaternary radiolarians from the Mouth of the Gulf of California, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 65. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 65: 491-523. gs

Boltovskoy, D. (1998). Classification and distribution of south Atlantic recent polycystine Radiolaria. Palaeontologia Electronica. -. gs

Haeckel, E (1887). Report on the Radiolaria collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. 18: 1-1803. gs O

Nigrini, C. A. & Moore, T. C. Jr. (1979). A guide to modern Radiolaria. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 16: 1-260. gs O

Nigrini, C. A. (1970). Radiolarian assemblages in the North Pacific and their application to a study of Quarternary sediments in Core V 20-130. Geological Society of America, Memoir. 126: 139-175. gs

Schröder-Ritzrau, A (1995). Aktuopalaontologische Untersuchung zu Verbreitung und VertikalfluB von Radiolarien sowie ihre raurnliche und zeitliche Entwicklung im Europaischen Nordmeer. Berichte Sondeiforschungsbereich Univ Kiel. 313(52): 1-99. gs


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Spongurus cylindricus compiled by the radiolaria@mikrotax project team viewed: 20-4-2024

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