Dictyocryphalus


Classification: rads_cenozoic -> Plagiacanthidae -> Lophophaenidae -> Dictyocryphalus
Sister taxa: Amphiplecta, Antarctissa, Arachnocalpis, Arachnocorallium, Arachnocorys, Archiperidium, Archipilium, Ceratocyrtis, Cryptogyrus, Dictyocephalus, Dictyocryphalus, Entepipedus, Gondwanaria, Lipmanella, Lithocampana, Lithomelissa, Lophophaena, Marimoum, Mitrocalpis, Periarachnium, Peromelissa, Phormacantha, P. inc sed castanoides, Plectacantha, Pseudocubus, Pseudodictyophimus, Pteroscenium, Steganocubus, Tripodocyrtis, Trisulcus

Taxonomy

Citation: Dictyocryphalus Haeckel 1887
Rank: Genus
Basionym: Dictyocephalus (Dictyocryphalus) Haeckel 1887
Type species: Cornutella obtusa Ehrenberg 1844
Synonyms: Dictyocephalus Ehrenberg 1861 (replaced by Dictyocryphalus - see remarks)
Taxonomic discussion: Haeckel 1887 subdivided Dictyocephalus into Dictyocryphalus, and Dictyoprora for forms with a hyaline basal part of the shell. Dictyoprora since was moved as a separate valid genus to the Artostrobiidae, thus eliminating any informational value to Dictyocryphalus. However, Dictyocephalus is a junior homonym of Dictyocephalus Leidy 1857 (a Paleozoic amphibian) and thus cannot be used. Multiple authors have suggested different replacement names. In Radworld the comment is made - 'See Discocephalus Ehrenberg, 1860b [replacement name] . Although Ehrenberg, in a list of errata, indicated in connection with premature species names that Dictyocephalus should read Discocephalus, neither he nor other authors have subsequently used the latter name and we here follow Ehrenberg's use of Dictyocephalus.' Nigrini (1967) however noted - 'Loeblich and Tappan [1735:229] indicate that Dictyocephalus Ehrenberg 1860 is a homonym of Dictyocephalus Leidy, 1857. The next available valid name is Dictyocryphalus Haeckel, 1887.' Nigrini is correct, as Discocephalus is also a pre-occupied name - used by Ehrenberg 1829 for a different species of protist (currently listed as a spirochete at WoRMS), see also Clara Ehrenberg index in Polygastern. Thus Dictyocryphalus is the correct replacement name.

Catalog entries: Dictyocephalus, Dictyocryphalus

Original description: Polycystinum solitarium ex Eucyrtidinis. Lorica silicea sphaerica aut oblonga cellulosa, nucleo septisque duris internis destituta, aperte aut obscure biarticulata. Apertura infera ampla, supera cancellata hinc parum distincta.

Has formas prius 1847 propter defectum septorum Haliphormidi associaveram, serius in Microgeologia et in Ephemeridibus academicis 1854 p. 245 Lophophaena nomine enumeravi, quarum plurimae fossiles species capitis cornibus singularibus, interdum ramosis et reticulatis, valde insignes sunt. Capite non armato insignes formas nunc tanta copia ex abyssis oceani eruere potui, ut eas alio nomine vocare et distinguere satius duxerim. Physiologici characteres generum iis commendandi sunt, qui vivas formas observare possunt. Lophophaena obtusa margarum Siciliae 1854 in Microgeologia a me delineata (T. XXII) nunc ad Dictyocephali genus referenda est, sed Lophophaenam Galeam Orci Ephemeridium 1854 inter Lophophaenas retinendam censui. Dictyophimi genus capitulo trisptat distinguendum esse autumo.

Dictyocephalus. Solitary polycystin of the Eucyrtidinae. The shell is siliceous, spherical or oblong, porous, lacking a nucleus and hard internal walls, distinctly or obscurely 2-segmented. The lower aperture wide, the upper latticed and thus rather distinct.

Prior to 1847 I had assigned these forms to the Haliphormidae because of the lack of septa, but on further consideration in Mikrogeologie and in the academic Ephemera of 1854, p. 245, I have enumerated them as belonging to Lophophaena, of which most fossil species are distinguished by single cephalic horns which are occasionally branched and reticulate. I have now been able to find on the sea-floor so many of the forms distinguished by not having an armed cephalis that I have decided to distinguish them more satisfactorily by another name. Elucidation of the physiological characteristics of the genera must be left to those who can observe living forms. Lophophaena obtusa from the marls of Sicily, illustrated by me in Mikrogeologie in 1854 (pl 22), should now be referred to the genus Dictyocephalus; but I have decided that Lophophaena galeaorci (Ephemera, 1854) should be retained in Lophophaena. I believe that the genus Dictyophimus, with triseptate cephalis, should be kept separate. (Translated from Latin by E.M.R. and W.R.R.)]
Remarks on original description: [Premature name in Ehrenberg, 1860a [775:767]

See Discocephalus Ehrenberg, 1860b [replacement name] . Although Ehrenberg, in a list of errata, indicated in connection with premature species names that Dictyocephalus should read Discocephalus, neither he nor other authors have subsequently used the latter name and we here follow Ehrenberg's use of Dictyocephalus.

Loeblich and Tappan [1735:229] indicate that Dictyocephalus Ehrenberg 1860 is a homonym of Dictyocephalus Leidy, 1857. The next available valid name is Dictyocryphalus Haeckel, 1887. (Nigrini, 1967)

Questionably synonymized with Lophophaena Ehrenberg by Petrushevskaya, 1971b, p.105]]

Description


Morphology:

Original description (Dictyocephalus): Polycystinum solitarium ex Eucyrtidinis. Lorica silicea sphaerica aut oblonga cellulosa, nucleo septisque duris internis destituta, aperte aut obscure biarticulata. Apertura infera ampla, supera cancellata hinc parum distincta.

Has formas prius 1847 propter defectum septorum Haliphormidi associaveram, serius in Microgeologia et in Ephemeridibus academicis 1854 p. 245 Lophophaena nomine enumeravi, quarum plurimae fossiles species capitis cornibus singularibus, interdum ramosis et reticulatis, valde insignes sunt. Capite non armato insignes formas nunc tanta copia ex abyssis oceani eruere potui, ut eas alio nomine vocare et distinguere satius duxerim. Physiologici characteres generum iis commendandi sunt, qui vivas formas observare possunt. Lophophaena obtusa margarum Siciliae 1854 in Microgeologia a me delineata (T. XXII) nunc ad Dictyocephali genus referenda est, sed Lophophaenam Galeam Orci Ephemeridium 1854 inter Lophophaenas retinendam censui. Dictyophimi genus capitulo trisptat distinguendum esse autumo.

Dictyocephalus. Solitary polycystin of the Eucyrtidinae. The shell is siliceous, spherical or oblong, porous, lacking a nucleus and hard internal walls, distinctly or obscurely 2-segmented. The lower aperture wide, the upper latticed and thus rather distinct.

Prior to 1847 I had assigned these forms to the Haliphormidae because of the lack of septa, but on further consideration in Mikrogeologie and in the academic Ephemera of 1854, p. 245, I have enumerated them as belonging to Lophophaena, of which most fossil species are distinguished by single cephalic horns which are occasionally branched and reticulate. I have now been able to find on the sea-floor so many of the forms distinguished by not having an armed cephalis that I have decided to distinguish them more satisfactorily by another name. Elucidation of the physiological characteristics of the genera must be left to those who can observe living forms. Lophophaena obtusa from the marls of Sicily, illustrated by me in Mikrogeologie in 1854 (pl 22), should now be referred to the genus Dictyocephalus; but I have decided that Lophophaena galeaorci (Ephemera, 1854) should be retained in Lophophaena. I believe that the genus Dictyophimus, with triseptate cephalis, should be kept separate. (Translated from Latin by E.M.R. and W.R.R.)]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): within (-Ma, top in "Holocene" stage). Data source:
First occurrence (base): within (-Ma, base in "Holocene" stage). Data source:

Plot of occurrence data:

References:


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Dictyocryphalus compiled by the radiolaria@mikrotax project team viewed: 19-4-2021

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