radiolaria - rads_cenozoic - Prunopyle tetrapila

Prunopyle tetrapila

Classification: rads_cenozoic -> Litheliidae -> Prunopylidae -> Prunopyle -> Prunopyle tetrapila
Sister taxa: P. adelstoma, P. hayesi, P. monikae, P. occidentalis, P. tetrapila, P. titan, P. trypopyrena, P. sp.


Citation: Prunopyle tetrapila Hays 1965
Rank: species
Basionym: Prunopyle tetrapila
Taxonomic discussion: Hays 1965 p 172 pl II fig 5; Abelmann 1990 (ODP 113 SR) p 693 pl 3 fig 13; Takemura 1992 (ODP 122 SR) p 742 pl 2 figs 1-2; ; Foreman (19759junior synonym

Catalog entries: Prunopyle tetrapila

Original description: Skeleton consists of four concentric shells, the inner three spherical, the outer prune-shaped, with a pylome at one end. Inner three shells, surface smooth, heir diameters in the ratio 1:3:7. Innermost shell, pores circular 2-3 times bar width; second shell, pores circular, of uniform size, 2-3 times bar width, 6 across equatorial diameter in some specimens, rounded by raised hexagonal frames. Third shell, pores vary in size between individuals, usually large, circular, not of uniform size, 3-10 times bar width, 6-8 across equatorial diameter, but in some specimens they may be nearly the same size as pores of fourth shell. Fourth shell, surface rough, pores usually small relative to those of third shell, circular, not uniformly spaced, and of varying size. Some specimens display 10-15 short spines, triangular in cross section, scattered over the surface of the fourth shell, but in most specimens shell is without spines.

(Based on 60 specimens) Diameter of innermost shell 13-16µm, second shell 30-50µm, third shell 80-125µm, fourth shell (major axis) 175-225µm, (minor axis) 155-220µm, pylome 40-50µm, pores of first shell 4-5µm, pores of second shell 5-10µm, pores of third shell 8-20µm, pores of fourth shell 5-10µm. Distinguishing characters (rw): The relationship between this species and its probable relatives found in Antarctic sediments is discussed under Prunopyle buspinigerum. This species can easily be distinguished from other species of this genus by its large, heavy fourth shell and the absence of spines.
Remarks on original description: Prunopyle tetrapila, although not found in Recent surface sediments on either side of the Polar Front, is a common constituent of zone phi, extending upward across the red clay diatomite boundary. Its upper limit varies but in a number of cores it is similar to the upper limit of Sethocorys sp., Saturnulus planetes, and Pterocanium trilobum or the top of zone X (Figures 22-27).




Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Similar species

Geographic distribution


Phylogenetic relations

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): within Neogene Period (2.59-23.03Ma, top in Piacenzian stage). Data source: Lazarus et al. 2015 - "N age group"
First occurrence (base): within Neogene Period (2.59-23.03Ma, base in Aquitanian stage). Data source: Lazarus et al. 2015 - "N age group"

Plot of occurrence data:


Abelmann, A. (1990). Oligocene to Middle Miocene radiolarian stratigraphy of southern high latitudes from Leg 113, Sites 689 and 690, Maud Rise. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 113: 675-708. gs V O

Foreman, H. P. (1975). Radiolaria from the North Pacific, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 32. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 32: 579-676. gs O

Takemura, A. (1992). Radiolarian Paleogene biostratigraphy in the southern Indian Ocean, Leg 120. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 120: 735-756. gs V O


Prunopyle tetrapila compiled by the radiolaria@mikrotax project team viewed: 3-12-2022

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