pforams@mikrotax - Globorotalia truncatulinoides pforams@mikrotax - Globorotalia truncatulinoides

Globorotalia truncatulinoides

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globorotaliidae -> Globorotalia -> truncatulinoides lineage -> Globorotalia truncatulinoides
Sister taxa: G. cavernula, G. truncatulinoides, G. tosaensis, G. tenuitheca ⟩⟨ G. hessi, G. ronda, G. crassaformis, G. viola ⟩⟨ G. crassaconica, G. crassula
Sub-taxa & variants (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)
truncatulinoides & variants
Globorotalia excelsa
Like G. truncatulinoides but with a more acute peripheral keel, a more open umbilicus and fewer pustules covering the surface


Citation: Globorotalia truncatulinoides (d’Orbigny, 1839)
taxonomic rank: species
Basionym: Rotalina truncatulinoides d’Orbigny, 1839

Catalog entries: Rotalina truncatulinoides, Globorotalia (Globorotalia) truncatulinoides pachytheca

Type images:

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (truncatulinoides lineage): G. crasula - crassaformis - tosaensis - truncatulinoides lineage, predominantly conicotruncate
This taxon: Like G. tosaensis but with a pronounced keel and a more open umbilicus

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Test low trochospiral, planoconvex, equatorial periphery almost circular, axial periphery acute with a distinct keel, 5 chambers in the final whorl, increasing slowly in size as added; sutures on spiral side straight to gently curved, flush to slightly depressed; on umbilical side almost radial , depressed; surface finely perforate, pustulate on umbilical as well as on spiral side; umbilicus wide deep, aperture interiomarginal, extraumbilical-umbilical, a low arch bordered by a lip. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Wall type:
Non-spinose; Smooth [Aze 2011]


Character matrix
test outline:Subcircularchamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Planoconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Crescenticcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:Single keelaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Subtriangularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Subangularaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Flushumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Smoothshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Weakly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:5-5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Warm subtropical to tropical. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983] Low latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

In modern oceans an abundant, temperate water, species [SCOR WG138]

Map of distribution from ForCenS database

Isotope paleobiology
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light δ13C and very heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Vergnaud-Grazzini (1976); Shackleton & Vincent (1978)

Phylogenetic relations
Gr. (T.) truncatulinoides is distinguished from Gr. (T.) tosaensis by the presence of a pronounced keel and a more open umbilicus (PI. 34, Fig. 2). Gr. (T.) truncatulinoides evolved from Gr. (T.) tosaensis during the latest Pliocene by developing a keel and a more wide open umbilicus. Kennett and Geitzenauer (1969) suggested that during the latest Pliocene to earliest Pleistocene, Gr. (T.) truncatulinoides and Gr. (T.) tosaensis for a short time were contemporaneous species living in adjacent transitional water masses. At that time, they were either phenotypic variants or separate species with distinct environmental preferences. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Molecular Genotypes recognised (data from PFR2 database, June 2017. References: Darling & Wade 2008; de Vargas et al. 2001; Morard et al. 2013; Quillévéré et al. 2013; Ujiié & Lipps 2009; Ujiié et al. 2010).

Most likely ancestor: Globorotalia tosaensis - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, fig 16; Stewart 2003 fig. 6.10; Aze et al. 2011, appendix 5.
Likely descendants: Globorotalia cavernula; plot with descendants

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: The evolutionary appearance of Gr. (T.) truncatulinoides marks the base of N22 and is generally considered to approximate the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary.
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): near top of PL6 [Atl.] zone (90% up, 1.9Ma, in Gelasian stage). Data source: Wade et al. (2011), additional event; position within zone determined by linear interpolation from data in table 1 of Wade et al. (2011).

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.148


Crundwell, M. P. (2018). Globoconella pseudospinosa, n. sp.: A new Early Pliocene planktonic foraminifera from the Southwest Pacific. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 48(4): 288-300. gs

d'Orbigny, A. (1839b). Foraminifères des Iles Canaries. In, Barker-Webb, P. & Berthelot, S. (eds) Histoire naturelle des Iles Canaries. 120-146. gs

Darling, K. F. & Wade, C. M. (2008). The genetic diversity of planktic foraminifera and the global distribution of ribosomal RNA genotypes. Marine Micropaleontology. 67: 216-238. gs

de Vargas, C., Renaud, S., Hilbrecht, H. & Pawlowski, J. (2001). Pleistocene adaptive radiation in Globorotalia truncatulinoides: genetic, morphologic, and environmental evidence. Paleobiology. 27: 104-125. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Geitzenauer, K. R. (1969). The Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary in a South Pacific deep-sea core. Nature. 224(5222): 899-901. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Lam, A. & Leckie, R. M. (2020a). Late Neogene and Quaternary diversity and taxonomy of subtropical to temperate planktic foraminifera across the Kuroshio Current Extension, northwest Pacific Ocean. Micropaleontology. 66(3): 177-268. gs

Loeblich, A. & Tappan, H. (1994). Foraminifera of the Sahul shelf and Timor Sea. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 31: 1-661. gs O

Morard, R., Quillévéré, F., Escarguel, G. & Garidel-thoron, T. D. (2013). Ecological modeling of the temperature dependence of cryptic species of planktonic foraminifera in the Southern Hemisphere. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 391: 13-33. gs

Postuma, J. A. (1971). Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Elsevier for Shell Group, The Hague. 1-406. gs

Quillévéré, F. et al. (2013). Global scale same-specimen morpho-genetic analysis of Truncorotalia truncatulinoides: A perspective on the morphological species concept in planktonic foraminifera. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 391: 2-12. gs

Shackleton, N. J. & Vincent, E. (1978). Oxygen and carbon isotope studies in Recent Foraminifera from the southeast Indian Ocean. Marine Micropaleontology. 3: 1-13. gs

Siccha, M. & Kucera, M. (2017). ForCenS, a curated database of planktonic foraminifera census counts in marine surface sediment samples. Scientific Data. 4(1): 1-12. gs

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J. H. (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39: 145-154. gs

Ujiié, Y., de Garidel-Thoron, T., Watanabe, S., Wiebe, P. & de Vargas, C. (2010). Coiling dimorphism within a genetic type of the planktonic foraminifer Globorotalia truncatulinoides. Marine Micropaleontology. 77: 145-153. gs

Vergnaud-Grazzini, C. (1976). Non-equilibrium isotopic compositions of shells of planktonic foraminifera in the Mediterranean Sea. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 20: 263-276. gs

Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., Berggren, W. A. & Pälike, H. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews. 104: 111-142. gs


Globorotalia truncatulinoides compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 20-4-2024

Taxon Search:
Advanced Search

Short stable page link: Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Add Comment

* Required information
Captcha Image
Powered by Commentics


No comments yet. Be the first!