pforams@mikrotax - Turborotalita quinqueloba pforams@mikrotax - Turborotalita quinqueloba

Turborotalita quinqueloba

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Turborotalita -> Turborotalita quinqueloba
Sister taxa: T. clarkei, T. humilis, T. quinqueloba ⟩⟨ T. praequinqueloba, T. carcoselleensis, T. sp.

3D models from The Foraminarium, hosted on sketchfab


Citation: Turborotalita quinqueloba (Natland, 1938)
taxonomic rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina quinqueloba


Taxonomic discussion: The morphological variability in this abundant species has led to the establishment of many names, proposed for terminal forms with differently developed ampullate final chambers (such as T. exumbilicata), including adult specimens from the living plankton without it (such as T. egelida), which we here subsume as ontogenetic variants under a single extant species. However, the species shows significant phenotypic variation (Kroon et al., 1988) and is genetically diverse (Darling et al., 2017) so that some of the names synonymized here may prove useful in future revisions considering pseudocryptic diversity, or when referring to extinct taxa. [Brummer & Kucera 2022]

The holotype is illustrated here for the first time by SEM. It is not as petaloid as many specimens but has 4½ chambers in the final whorl and a distinct chamber extension with lip encroaching on the umbilicus. Natland (1938) described this as an “overhanging lip almost covering the umbilicus”. Uppermost Oligocene specimens similar to the modern species were illustrated by Pearson and Wade (2009) and a lower Oligocene specimen was illustrated by Székely and Filipescu (2016). Pearson and Wade (2009) speculated that Globanomalina laccadivensis Fleisher may be a heavily calcified and dissolution-resistant form of this species, in which case its range may extend back to the upper part of the middle Eocene, but this has yet to be determined in well-preserved material. The oldest confirmed occurrences we have made are in Zone E14 in Armenia (Plate 12.2, Figs. 14-16). From the limited number of SEMs available it seems that Paleogene Turborotalita quinqueloba may have had larger and lower density pores than is typical of modern forms. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Catalog entries: Globigerina quinqueloba, Globigerina exumbilicata, Globigerina quinqueloba egelida, Globorotalia neominutissima, Globigerina groenlandica

Type images:

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Turborotalita): Minute, with bullate extension of the final chamber, smooth wall, large pores and short conical spines concentrated along the periphery.
This taxon: Five chambers & apertural flap

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Low, flat trochospiral coiling, peripheral margin petaloid; in spiral view 4½-5½ moderately rounded chambers in the final whorl, increasing gradually in size, sutures radial or slightly curved, depressed; in edge view biconvex, lenticular; in umbilical view 4½-5½ chambers, final chamber commonly reduced in size, ampullate, with a flap developing into a broad extension towards the umbilicus, usually with a prominent lip, sutures radial, depressed; umbilicus narrow, commonly obscured by encroaching final chamber; aperture umbilical, a low arch, usually obscured. When heavily calcified the outline is compact and the sutures may be largely obscured. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Wall type:
Normal perforate, spinose, with a tendency for heavy late-stage gametogenic calcification.

[Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Diameter of holotype: approximately 0.24 mm (Natland, 1938). [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Character matrix
test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thick flange
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.5-5.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Global in modern, peaking at cool temperate latitudes but also occurring in the tropics (Bé, 1977). Too few Oligocene occurrences are known to establish the distribution. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]Map of distribution from ForCenS database

Isotope paleobiology
Pearson and Wade (2009:209) record “an upper-thermocline or mixed-layer habitat with a calcite crust added in the thermocline”. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Phylogenetic relations
Probably evolved from T. carcoselleensis, possibly part of a single evolving lineage. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Turborotalita carcoselleensis - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Pearson & Kucera 2018.
Likely descendants: Turborotalita humilis; Turborotalita praequinqueloba; plot with descendants

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zone E14 (this study) to Recent. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within E14 zone (35.89-37.99Ma, base in Bartonian stage). Data source: Pearson & Kucera 2018

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Pearson & Kucera 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.12 p.388;


Aze, T. et al. (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews. 86: 900-927. gs

Bé, A. W. H. (1977). An ecological, zoographic and taxonomic review of Recent planktonic foraminifera. In, Ramsay, A. T. S. (ed.) Oceanic Micropaleontology. Academic Press, London 1-100. gs

Darling, K. F. & Wade, C. M. (2008). The genetic diversity of planktic foraminifera and the global distribution of ribosomal RNA genotypes. Marine Micropaleontology. 67: 216-238. gs

Darling, K. F., Wade, C. M., Stewart, I. A., Kroon, D., Dingle, R. & Brown, A. J. (2000). Molecular evidence for genetic mixing of Arctic and Antarctic subpolar populations of planktonic foraminifers. Nature. 405: 43-47. gs

Darling, K. F., Kucera, M., Wade, C. M. , von Langen, P. & Pak, D. (2003). Seasonal distribution of genetic types of planktonic foraminifer morphospecies in the Santa Barbara Channel and its paleoceanographic implications. Paleoceanography. 18: 1-11. gs

Fleisher, R. L. (1974a). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 23: 1001-1072. gs O

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Lam, A. & Leckie, R. M. (2020a). Late Neogene and Quaternary diversity and taxonomy of subtropical to temperate planktic foraminifera across the Kuroshio Current Extension, northwest Pacific Ocean. Micropaleontology. 66(3): 177-268. gs

Natland, M. L. (1938). New Species of Foraminifera from off the West Coast of North America and from the Later Tertiary of the Los Angeles Basin. Bulletin of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Tech. Ser. 4(5): 137-164. gs

Pearson, P. N. & Kucera, M. (2018). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Turborotalita. In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication . 46(Chap 12): 385-392. gs

Pearson, P. N. & Wade, B. S. (2009). Taxonomy and stable isotope paleoecology of well-preserved planktonic foraminifera from the uppermost Oligocene of Trinidad. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39: 191-217. gs

Seears, H. A., Darling, K. F. & Wade, C. M. (2012). Ecological partitioning and diversity in tropical planktonic foraminifera. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12(54): 1-15. gs

Siccha, M. & Kucera, M. (2017). ForCenS, a curated database of planktonic foraminifera census counts in marine surface sediment samples. Scientific Data. 4(1): 1-12. gs

Spezzaferri, S. (1994). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and taxonomy of the Oligocene and lower Miocene in the oceanic record. An overview. Palaeontographia Italica. 81: 1-187. gs

Stewart, I. A., Darling, K. F., Kroon, D., Wade, C. M. & Troelstra, S. R. (2001). Genotypic variability in subarctic Atlantic planktic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology. 43: 143-153. gs

Szekely, S. -F. & Filipescu, S. (2016). Biostratigraphy and paleoenvironments of the Late Oligocene in the north-western Transylvanian Basin revealed by the foraminifera assemblages. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 449: 484-509. gs

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J. H. (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39: 145-154. gs

Ujiié, Y., Asami, T., de Garidel-Thoron, T., Liu, H., Ishitani, Y. & de Vargas, C. (2012). Longitudinal differentiation among pelagic populations in a planktic foraminifer. Ecology and Evolution. 2: 1725-1737. gs

Wade, B. S., Aljahdali, M. H., Mufrreh, Y. A., Memesh, A. M., AlSoubhi, S. A. & Zalmout, I. S. (2021). Upper Eocene planktonic foraminifera from northern Saudi Arabia: implications for stratigraphic ranges. Journal of Micropalaeontology. 40: 145-161. gs O


Turborotalita quinqueloba compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 16-4-2024

Taxon Search:
Advanced Search

Short stable page link: Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Add Comment

* Required information
Captcha Image
Powered by Commentics


No comments yet. Be the first!